The group of scientists of Saudi Arabia and the USA under the leadership of Hatim Salikh (Hatim Salih) from the Scientific and technical small town of a name of king Abdoul-Aziz ibn Saod claims that developed an information transfer method between a source and the recipient without an exchange of any physical particles.
"Well here, as usual, sensational nature for didn't regret even the school program... " — the reader will think and will be to some extent right. But only to extremely small degree.
In heart of the designed device — a set of beam splitters — devices from prisms and mirrors (simplifying a little) with very high reflecting ability. When one party of an information channel (Alice) sends a photon through the first beam splitter, and the second (Bob) has the detector directly behind this device, Bob can either activate the detector, or not activate it. While the detector is switched off, the photon exists in superposition of simultaneous conditions, in one of which it will be reflected, and in other — is passed through a beam splitter that will allow it to interfere most with itself after reflection in two correctly located mirrors.
But when Bob detector is switched on, the situation changes: wave function of a photon is compelled коллапсировать, and the particle has to choose what of two conditions should be "preferred".
The scheme of exchange of information without particles (the illustration Hatim Salih et al. ) .
The second beam splitter is located where both potential routes of a photon are crossed, and behind this beam splitter Bob too has a detector. When concerning the detector and a beam splitter two more mirrors are correctly located, the configuration of this element as a whole starts repeating the first that leads to emergence of a series of "loops" in the form of a rhombus.
As a result the quantum effect of Zenon according to which a certain metastable condition will break up the later starts working, than more often it will measure by means of devices. In this case Bob can tell to Alice, whether all his detectors, without need to pass at least one photon among themselves and Alice are switched on. After all if all detectors work, in game Zenon's quantum effect, and wave function of a photon constantly коллапсирует enters the same condition of high probability — reflected, forcing a photon to give out a signal on one of two output detectors on Alice's party. Well and if Bob all detectors are switched off, the repeated interference of wave function with by itself leads to activation of the second of Alice's two detectors.
Certainly, the described scheme isn't ideal. If Bob includes only one of the remote detectors being in the following elements of system, wave function of a photon will reach a condition when it, most likely, will manage to be registered on that part of installation that is under Bob control, so, the goal — exchange of information without a photon parcel — won't be reached.
To remove this problem, researchers used that they call "Zenon's chain quantum effect". The idea of a trick in that secondary contours of system a beam splitter — the detector dumped wave function at the end of each big contour so that probability of detection of a photon on Bob party though didn't disappear, but never reached too great values.
As scientists believe, the infinite number of primary and secondary contours in such system has to guarantee that the photon will always force to work the correct detector on Alice's party and never will finish the way in one of Bob detectors that will mean absolutely free communication from particles between Alice and Bob.