Wednesday, April 3, 2013

Programming languages. General characteristic.

   Information technologies occupy more and more significant role in human society. They got into all fields of activity. For service of public requirements for automation of work, data storage, communication, etc. programming languages develop. If earlier programming languages were used only for creation of programs for automation of computing processes, today they are used for the solution of more various tasks.

   Studying of history of programming languages, their variety and features allows the programmer to make a right choice at a language choice for the solution of a certain task.

   All variety of programming languages divide into various classes depending on tasks solved by them. It was noticed that in development the programming languages entering into one class, approach among themselves. Though a variety of classes increases since the sphere of the tasks solved by means of computer technologies increases.

   It should be noted also and development of programming languages towards the specification when certain languages are most suitable for the solution of a narrow class of tasks.

   One more feature is leaving from obvious formalization. If the first languages differed pronounced formality, with the advent of object-oriented and logical approaches the formality ceased to be so obvious (though it certainly is). It can lead to increase in semantic (semantic) mistakes when the program does not that the programmer planned. Let's add to it the fact of progressing of a robotics, it is a little imagination, and it is possible to represent already as the artificial intelligence leaves from under mankind control :) .

   If to track an evolutionary way of development of programming languages, it is possible to notice analogy to development of the live world. When at first there were only simple organisms (and programming languages), and then appeared more difficult. And both there and there it is possible to note the following:

  • low-level languages and the elementary organisms didn't lose the value and till today. For example, bacteria are pioneers at development of new habitats. And language the assembler is the irreplaceable tool at return of direct teams to the processor and ensuring high efficiency of calculations.
  • both the high-organized organisms, and languages of high and ultrahigh levels are very various and specific. For example, the mammals, thus each animal are very diverse is rigidly adapted for specific conditions of the environment. Languages of ultrahigh level are diverse also, and each of them well solves only certain class of tasks.

   In the live world only one animal who learned to be rather independent of conditions of environment was allocated is a person. Therefore the question is logical: Whether "There will be a programming language which will be able optimum to solve any problem, and at a bit different level, than languages existing today? ". Probably, the answer on it a question lies within studying of AI and so-called CASE systems.

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