Thursday, April 4, 2013

History of development of informatics

   The informatics as science began to develop from the middle of last century that is connected with emergence of the COMPUTER and the begun computer revolution. Emergence of computers in the 1950th created for informatics necessary hardware support, i.e. the favorable environment for its development as sciences. All history of informatics can be subdivided into two big stages: background and history.

   Background of informatics same ancient, as well as history of development of human society. In background also allocate (very approximately) a number of stages. Each of them is characterized by sharp increase, in comparison with the previous stage, opportunities of storage, transfer and information processing.

   The initial stage of background of informatics – development by the person of the developed oral speech. Articulate speech, language became specific social means of storage and information transfer.

  The second stage – writing emergence. At this stage possibilities of storage of information sharply increased. The person received artificial external memory. The organization of post services allowed to use writing and as information transmission medium. Besides, emergence of writing was a necessary condition to start development of sciences (we will remember, for example, Ancient Greece). Concept "natural number" emergence is connected with the same stage, most likely, also. All people possessing writing, owned concept of number and used this or that notation.

   The third stage – publishing. It is possible to call it the first information technology safely. Reproduction of information was put on a stream, on an industrial basis. In comparison with previous at this stage possibility of storage of information not so much increased (though there was a prize: the written source is often one and only copy, the printing book is the whole circulation of copies and consequently, and the small probability of loss of information at storage), how many increased availability of information and accuracy of its reproduction.

   The fourth (last) stage of background of informatics is connected with successes of the exact sciences (first of all mathematics and physics) and beginning scientific and technical revolution. This stage is characterized by emergence of such powerful tools of communication as radio, phone and telegraph, and is later also television. There were new possibilities of receiving and information storage – the photo and cinema. To them it is very important to add development of methods of a data recording on magnetic carriers (magnetic tapes, disks).

   It is accepted to connect informatics emergence with development of the first COMPUTERS as sciences, the beginning of its history. For such binding there are some reasons. First, the term "informatics" appeared thanks to development of computer facilities, and first it was understood as science about calculations (the first COMPUTERS mostly were used for carrying out numerical calculations). Secondly, informatics allocation in separate science was promoted by such important property of modern computer facilities, as a uniform form of submission of processed and stored information. All information, regardless of its look, is stored and processed on the COMPUTER in a binary form. So it turned out that the computer in one system united storage and processing numerical, text (symbolical) and audiovisual (a sound, the image) information. In it the initiating role of computer facilities consisted at emergence and registration of new science.

   Today the informatics represents complex scientific and technical discipline. Under this name quite extensive complex of sciences, such, as cybernetics, system engineering, programming, modeling, etc. is integrated. Each of them is engaged in studying of one of aspects of concept of informatics. Scientists make intensive efforts on rapprochement of the sciences making informatics. However process of their rapprochement goes quite slowly, and creation of uniform and comprehensive information science is represented future business.

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