Friday, April 26, 2013

ReRAM-memory, appears, also the accumulator

ReRAM-память, оказывается, ещё и аккумулятор   In random access memory for storage of information electrons which it is much less actually than atoms are used. Therefore to supervise their location in a cell it is difficult and to avoid dispersion of electrons (and losses of written-down information), the cell should be surrounded thick to nanomeasures with an insulator layer.

Стандартная ячейка ReRAM, одновременно являющаяся микроаккумулятором (здесь и ниже иллюстрация I.Valov et al.).

Standard cell of ReRAM which is at the same time the microaccumulator (here and lower illustration I.Valov et al. ) .

    Therefore many developers turn looks towards ReRAM (resistive memory with direct access), based on ions — usually one-nuclear particles which received or have lost any quantity of electrons. In such system electrons are already caught by ions, and in a thick insulator there is no need. At the same time without a layer of the insulator consisting of a set of atoms, the sizes of system are defined generally by parameters of an ion which is dimensionally close to single atom.

   For control of such ion in prototypes of memory two electrodes (we will tell, from silver and platinum) are used. Thus, the scheme starts bearing a faint resemblance to banal lithium - the ion accumulator in which for deduction of electrons ions too are used.

  Scientists under the leadership of Ilya Valov from Akhen's (Germany) Rhine and Westphalian technical university became interested in this similarity. For confirmation of ability of elements of new memory to play a role of microaccumulators researchers analysed the most modern ReRAM-samples of various producers. "Looking back back, it is possible to tell that presence of tension peculiar to accumulators, at ReRAM is axiomatic. But during nine-months consideration of work [before its publication in the magazine] we had to make huge efforts on an overpersuasion of colleagues". And it is clear, Mr. Valov adds, after all the voltage of ReRAM-cells can have three different basic mechanisms of emergence, and accurate fixing of comparative importance of each of them wasn't simple business.

   Opening means that the theoretical base used for the analysis of ReRAM, became outdated. It understood as set of memristor — the passive elements, capable to change the resistance depending on a charge proceeding through them. But, as showed research, in fact, the ReRAM elements are active and have own charge so mathematical ways for the description of work of these components are wrong.

Три сценария возникновения напряжения в ReRAM-элементе. Обратите внимание, в случае формирования нанонити накопления заряда не будет —  из-за короткого замыкания.

Three scenarios of emergence of tension in a ReRAM-element. Pay attention, in case of formation of a nanothread of accumulation of a charge won't be — because of short circuit.

    However, practice specified long ago that with our understanding of it like memory something not so. Inexplicable there was a long-term drift of parameters of separate cells of ReRAM. Really, now, when we understood that they can accumulate a charge, it becomes obvious that during the long work without this factor of property of ions in ReRAM are simply obliged to undergo changes.

   Therefore it is possible not only to overcome this problem, but also to create absolutely new types of electronics in which the power supply and non-volatile memory will be integrated into one chip.

Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Heating and cooling of electric cars can be simplified the thermal accumulator

Отопление и охлаждение электромобилей можно упростить тепловым аккумулятором   It is widely known that, unlike the car with DVS, electromachines extremely difficult are given salon heating in the winter. Certainly, speech not about low-potential heat; such car spends the electric energy reserved in and without those to not too capacious battery. In a word, if in the passport of your Nissan Leaf "150 km" are written any, in a minus twenty they quite can shrivel literally to one hundred.

  Evelyn Wong (Evelyn Wang), the professor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA), heads works on creation of alternative system of heating, and at the same time and car conditioning. What can he offer "green" motorists?

Nissan Leaf в американских зимних тестах пробегал на 37,5% меньше, чем летом. (Фото Nissan.)

Nissan Leaf in the American winter tests ran 37,5% less, than in the summer. (Nissan photo. )

   In its system water is injected into the container of low pressure, evaporates and thus absorbs heat. Then water vapor contacts to absorbent — a hydrophilic material with microscopic a time (will approach and the modified zeolite). On absorbent water leaves the container, supporting in it the low pressure necessary for effective work of system. Then the new portion of water moves in the container — and so on.

   Heat received at absorption of water, can be disseminated in the atmosphere through a radiator ("a conditioner mode") or is used for salon heating if it is a question of a cold season. From the description it is visible that work of system demands much less electricity, than is usually spent in the electric car for the conditioner or heating system on TENs. In total that it is necessary — to support not too powerful pumps.

   Certainly, the success isn't given by gift: in fact, before us the heataccumulator as when absorbent will save up enough water, the system will rise. To extract the water reused in a cycle, the material should be heated to 200 °C then this "the thermal accumulator" on a water basis is again efficient within several hours (everything depends on an amount of water and absorbent).

   Where to take energy for a recharge of "the thermal accumulator"? In principle, the electric heater is capable of this feat, but "there is a set of other possible sources of heat — will tell, warmly from a solar water heater therefore it is possible to do without electricity". The benefit water evaporation from absorbent lasts not more long than four hours that is close to time of a recharge of accumulators of modern electric cars. Soon one of options of this system while tested in laboratory, it will be checked on Ford Focus EV.

Модель Ford Focus EV, на одной из которых вскоре начнутся испытания новой системы охлаждения и отопления салона (фото Ford).

The Ford Focus EV model, on one of which tests of the new cooling system and salon heating (Ford photo) will soon begin.

   That to a solar water heater, it is difficult to call this "green" idea too practical. Really electrogas stations should hold also solar water heaters, on one on each electric car? However, not everything is so bad: even if to drain absorbent the electric heater (not at a driving, of course, and at night, at recharge), range, and without that often not exceeding 160 km, in cold time remains normal, instead of will fall to a third because of work of system of heating.

   And here for hybrids the idea looks better — if, of course, to modify temperature of heating of absorbent. At a hybrid car low-potential heat during DVS work all the same arises sooner or later, and it can quite be used for water evaporation from absorbent. Respectively, in such scheme power selection at the motor for the cooling system is excluded — so, the general fuel consumption is lower also.

Sunday, April 21, 2013

Memory can be strengthened molecular and cellular training schemes

Память можно укрепить молекулярно-клеточными обучающими схемами    Not so long ago researchers from the Texas university in Houston (USA) found out that neurons remember information better if to adhere to a certain schedule of training incentives. Storing, as we know, depends on synthesis of certain proteins in nervous cages. In this case for the second incentive it is possible to pick up such time when the new wave of activation of genes will enter, so to speak, in a resonance with a wave from the previous incentive and will improve storing. Differently, will improve a "zapominatelny" proteinaceous profile in a cage. On the basis of data on gene and proteinaceous dynamics scientists constructed mathematical model which allowed to develop "the schedule of lessons" for neurons.
Нейробиолог Джон Бирн с коллегами и морским зайцем (фото The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston).

Neurobiologist John Byrne with colleagues and a sea hare (a photo of The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston).

    In a new series of experiments the same scientific group under the leadership of John Byrne tried to promote by means of such obuchayushche-stimulating technique slightly further and to prevent memory impairment. As well as in the previous work, experiment was made with cages of a mollusk of Aplysia californica (he is a sea hare), which nervous system thanks to the large and multi-colored neurons often acts as model object in neurobiological researches.

   To simulate memory impairment, culture of nervous cages processed the substance weakening contacts between neurons. It is known that storing depends on exchange of information between nervous cages therefore durability of memory, especially long-term, is defined by firmness of interneural connections. To simulate training, other substance which raised neurons was used. "Training sessions" with culture of cages were carried out according to the schemes calculated by means of the mathematical program on the basis of the schedule of molecular and biochemical processes in neurons. Different schemes provided different and irregular intervals between incentives, from 5 to 50 minutes.

   As researchers write to "educational schemes" to Journal of Neuroscience, after five "training sessions", carried out on such, connection force between neurons was restored. And it is worth emphasizing once again that scientists used not medicine, and simply irritating substance. That is systematic exercises in itself are capable to have beneficial impact on memory, returning to neurons the former force of contact. The schemes created by authors of work, not simply help memory, but also treat her for damages.

   Whether it is possible to use this method at disorders of memory at the person? His authors consider that is possible, but it is necessary to modify technology according to human neurochemical features. After all the sense consists not so much in in itself intellectual exercises, how many in their schedule, distribution in time. And to make such schedule effective for the person, it is necessary that it corresponded to waves of molecular and genetic activity in our neurons.

The largest power plant using a temperature gradient of sea water, will appear in China

Крупнейшая электростанция, использующая температурный градиент морской воды, появится в Китае     The Energy of a Temperature Gradient of Sea Water (ETGSW) — potentially the most powerful source of the electric power. Water of oceans at a depth even in the equatorial zones is very cool (generally 5–10 °C) while in blankets often happens quite warm (more than 25 °C). Such difference of temperatures arises literally on hundred meters of difference of depths and can be quite used for electrogeneration. By calculations, even extraction of 5% of energy of the Sun absorbed by oceans and the leader to a difference of temperatures in their layers, is capable to provide 10 000 GW of generating capacities — that is 80 trillion kW • h in a year that four times exceeds present world electrogeneration.
У берегов Хайнаня разница температур у поверхности и на глубине превышает 22 °С. (Здесь и ниже иллюстрации Lockheed Martin.)

At coast of Hainan the difference of temperatures at a surface and at a depth exceeds 22 °C. (Here and lower than the illustration Lockheed Martin. )

   But for realization of such system it is necessary to overcome a number of difficulties because of which the capacity of power plants on ETGMV yet doesn't exceed tens kilowatts. The concept of the Lockheed Martin company consists in the following: first, it is necessary to choose correctly the area of work of station — to achieve the maximum difference of temperature of superficial and deep layers; secondly, to use the optimum scheme on energy consumption. In the system offered by Lockheed Martin, ammonia in the heat exchanger evaporates in warm blankets; the evaporated gas twists the turbine and arrives in the lower part of the heat exchanger, being cooled with deep water and turning into liquid, then reused for energy generation. Parasitic losses on pumping of ammonia are equal here about 40% from received pure generation, and cost, by optimistical estimates of the company, there can be in the area only 7 cents for kilowatt-hour.

  Such scheme is ideally suited for coastal areas and especially islands where energy generation often depends on imported fuel, and therefore is extremely expensive. So, cost on the Hawaiian Islands is equal (January, 2013) 37,86 cents for kW • h for households and 31,69 cents for industrial enterprises that, undoubtedly, force to rejoice small number of the last in this state of the USA. For comparison: these prices are equal in continental States pity 11,47 and 6,45 cents for kW • h respectively.
Офшорная электростанция на ЭГТМВ принципиально довольно проста, но крупных станций такого типа пока никто не строил, и Lockheed Martin здесь первопроходец.

The offshore power plant on EGTMV is essentially enough simple, but while nobody built large stations of this kind, and Lockheed Martin here the pioneer.

  For this reason in 2009 of Lockheed Martin was going to begin construction on Hawaii power plants on ETGMV on new technology (own development). But Naval Forces of the USA which partially financed the project, considered too risky to be put for themselves in it therefore on April 13, 2013 the company signed the corresponding memorandum of understanding with the Chinese Reignwood Group, planning to build up coastal areas of the island of Hainan.

   Capacity of pilot station is equal 10 MWt, however, if experience is successful, it will be increased to 100 MWt. Unlike wind or solar energy, such installation is capable to work in full and identical force day and night, and each such station will be able to give enough energy to replace 1,3 million barrels of oil and to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by half a million tons per year.

Saturday, April 20, 2013

Life in the Universe arose even long before emergence of Earth

Жизнь во Вселенной зародилась еще задолго до появления Земли    The new research executed by geneticist Alexey Sharovym together with biologist-theorist Richard Gordon of National institute of health of the USA, specifies that origin of life happened about 9,8 billion years ago in other place in the Universe. At that time Earth didn't exist yet. Our planet arose about five billions years ago, according to the modern scientific version.
   Scientists proceeded mainly from this that life, accepting over time more and more difficult forms, flows according to the certain law, reminding in something Moore's law. By back in time of a thread of genetic complexity, researchers consider, it is possible to define when after all there was a life.
   In Moore's law it is said, in particular about increase in two productivities of the computer within each 18 months that promotes the exponential growth of complexity of technologies. Such events allow to argue and on opportunities of future technologies, and also to trace back in time a computer performance level up to a point when this technology appeared for the first time. So, if to apply Moore's law, for example, to the exponential growth of transistors on integrated schemes, emergence them corresponds to 1960.
     Geneticist Sharov and biologist-theorist Gordon believe that it is possible to determine the period of an origin of life by means of studying of genetic complexity through a prism of the law of Moore with return to a certain point of a temporary origin. Tracing an evolution course for the last some eras, since simple unicells and finishing more difficult types, such, for example, as fishes and mammals, scientists as a result came to a conclusion that the complexity genome far not increased each 18 months in a geometrical progression on doubling. In a way, it is accurately visible not absolutely Moore's law, however the period made each 376 million years.
    Meanwhile, the most entertaining in this regard that the complexity genome about 9,7 billion years ago, reaches zero with a margin error a plus-minus 2,5 billion years. And Earth, as we know, exists only about 4,5 billions years. Then life arose even earlier and not on Earth, researchers declare.

Scientists who hunt for a dark matter, register three promising events

Темная материя         Sensors of the scientific installation which is settling down deeply underground in Minnesota, registered three events which according to scientists are potential "signatures" of exotic particles of a mysterious dark matter. The received results have especially preliminary character in order that they could be classified as opening, nevertheless, they give to scientists some possible hints which will help with the solution of the scientific riddle facing scientists already within a decade.
     "Now it is possible to tell that we found the first hints on existence of a dark matter" - Rupek Mekhapatra (Rupak Mahapatra), the scientist-physicist from the Texas university, working within the SuperCDMS program tells, - "Actually is only the beginning of searches. Now we will need to carry out much more supervision and to involve a set of new sensors to confirm the found facts".
    If the results received by scientists, are confirmed, they will point to existence of the massive particles which are poorly interacting with world around (Weakly Interacting Particles, WIMP) which, in turn, can serve as an explanation of existence of a dark matter to which share 27 percent from everything fall that exists in the Universe. This dark matter is invisible and isn't detectable by means of any available means, it is possible to judge its existence only indirectly thanks to gravitational effects created by it. One more mysterious phenomenon is dark energy to which share 68 percent from "all real" fall. And only 5 percent remain on a share of a usual matter which can be seen and "felt" various scientific tools.
     Scientists-physicists puzzle over a riddle of a dark matter from 1930th years, billion dollars were spent for carrying out various experiments. And here only in 2008, the sensor of experiment of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) registered three high-energy events novel hitherto the nature. Highly sensitive germanic sensors of the CDMS installation are in one of the thrown mines at a depth of 713 meters. Such depth helps to protect the scientific equipment from influence of secondary space beams in which noise the weak signature of a dark matter can get lost.
    The effects noticed by the SuperCDMS team, indicate existence of particles of WIMP, important masses energy about 8.6 billions electron-volt that approximately in nine times more masses of a proton. For the present it isn't up to the end clear, whether are the registered events statistical accident but if it so, data recording of events is something it is similar to row loss a semerok on a board of "the one-armed bandit". According to the preliminary analysis of the obtained data the probability of reliability of these data makes 99.8 percent that is very essential indicator. Nevertheless such probability has enough before to reach level of 5 sigma (99.9999 percent) after which scientific data start being considered as reliable opening.

Датчик эксперимента CDMS

      "If the physician tells that he cures an illness in 99.8 percent of cases, it will be simply tremendous event. But if such probability is mentioned concerning area of physics of high energiya and elementary particles, it can appear that all collected data don't stand also a bean" - Rupek Mekhapatra tells, - "The probability received by us assumes that during repetition of the same experiment some hundred times failure can happen once. We are going to lift this probability to one on one million".
    The scientists using highly sensitive germanic sensors, needed nearly five years to start to notice the events connected with a dark matter. And it is connected with use of germanic sensors which have the maximum sensitivity in the field of the high masses and energiya. Now already there is one more data set, received from the silicon sensors sensitive in areas of lower energiya but while these data aren't processed yet. At this time results of other experiments in the field of a dark matter indicate existence of a dark matter in lower power range, than it was expected earlier. "Now we closely will be engaged in the careful analysis of data from silicon sensors to which we paid not enough attention within the last four years" - Mekhapatra tells.
      Many scientists-physicists, including Sean M. Keroll (Sean M. Carroll) from the Californian institute of technology, aren't surprised absolutely not that data of experiment of SuperCDMS didn't lead at once to opening. For the present reliability of future opening will require confirmation of the obtained data by other experiments, AMS, LUX, Xenon1T and others. "Available data are only confirmation to that we go literally on "hot scents" of a dark matter" - Carroll in NBC News interview declared.
     Some scientists consider that the matter and a dark matter appeared as a result of the process called by a space cladogenesis which means that each usual particle has an own "dark" antipode. Therefore, detection of WIMP of particles with a various weight completely keeps within such theory. "While we still don't know, whether coincidence it, or the help, made to us the nature" - was declared by Mekhapatra.

In two planetary systems three are found at once "super lands" in habitability zones

В двух планетарных системах обнаружены сразу три «суперземли» в зонах обитаемости   Space telescope "Kepler" found two new planetary systems as a part of which in a zone of a habitability there are at once three "super lands"". And two of them on parameters are very close to actually Earth.
    In Kepler-62 system in constellation of the Lira remote from us for 1 200 light years, five planets are found: Kepler-62b, 62c, 62d, 62e and 62f. The three first — bodies of terrestrial group, but being too close to a star and rather similar to hot Mercury and Venus. Two last — Kepler-62e and Kepler-62f — rotate round the sun (the orange dwarf like K2V that is five times more dim and is one and a half times less than our star) in 122 and 247 days respectively. Kepler-62e for 61% of the continent in the diameter also rotates at internal edge of a manned zone round Kepler-62 star; Kepler-62f is only 41% larger than our house, and rotates closer to the center of a manned zone.
Как видим, лишь Kepler-62e и Kepler-62f уверенно находятся в зоне обитаемости, в то время как Kepler-69c вполне может быть чересчур жаркой для жизни земного типа. (Здесь и ниже иллюстрации NASA Ames / JPL-Caltech.)

As we see, only Kepler-62e and Kepler-62f surely are in a habitability zone while Kepler-69c can quite be too hot for life of terrestrial type. (Here and lower than the illustration NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech. )

If to compare quantity received by them on unit of a surface of radiation to terrestrial norm, for Kepler-62e the stream of radiation is equal 1,2 ± 0,2, and for 62f — 0,41 ± 0,05. Differently, before us to some extent wishful thinking sample: not all researchers are sure that the planet receiving 20% more than energy from a star, than Earth from the Sun, in general can be manned. However, there are also opposite points of view according to which even Venus in the presence of a magnetic field could support life of a terrestrial look.
The planetary system in which they are, is much more senior than ours: by estimates, it about 7 billion years that on 2,5 billion years are more, than age Solar. All theoretical models for planets of such sizes in systems of similar age specify that it not neptunopodobny bodies, and firm planets of terrestrial group.
Kepler-69 star (the spectral class G4V), being in Swan constellation in 2 700 light years from us, looks much more solntsepodobny: its diameter — 93%, and luminosity — 80% from solar.
The planet of Kepler-69b next to it has radius in 2,24 ± 0,4 terrestrial; in any case it is too hot to be manned. Well and Kepler-69c with a radius of 1,7 ± 0,3 terrestrial rotates on the removal, allowing to believe its habitability entering into a zone. However, the number of the radiation received by it is a little great: 1,91+0,43–0,56 . However because of uncertainty of a number of parameters exact value of such stream not absolutely clearly so the probability of life there remains:
(By the way, in video of NASA there is a mistake: the distance to Kepler-62 is equal not to "about 360 light years", and similar quantity a parsec, that is to 1 200 light years. )
Alas, with a mass of above-mentioned planets of clarity it is less: they are too small that their gravitation had considerable impact on parental stars so while neither we can't find out the weight, nor density.

    Nevertheless the group of scientists under the leadership of Lisa Kaltenegger (Lisa Kaltenegger) from Institute of astronomy of Society of a name of Max Planck (Germany) has some assumptions of specifics of structure and a surface of two of three worlds — Kepler-62e and Kepler-62f. "These planets aren't similar on anything in our system. They are covered with boundless oceans — the Mrs. Kaltenegger is sure. — There can be a life, but whether it can have the technological base similar to ours? Life in these worlds has to be underwater, with lack of easy access to metals, electricity or fire necessary for development of metallurgy. Nevertheless it is the fine blue planets rotating round an orange star, and, probably, the life ingenuity in achievement of a technological stage of development still will surprise us".
    What forces the German scientists to assume, what in Kepler-62 system two Solarises are open? Astronomers carried out modeling of parameters of both planets on the basis of the assumption of the chemical composition similar to the terrestrial. At available data on number of the radiation received by these planets at all possible values of gravitation left that the sheet of water for such bodies on thickness has to be very considerable, to 80–150 km. However, it doesn't mean that at 62f there is no firm surface: this world is received by less heat, than Earth, and therefore can quite have the considerable sizes constant ice caps that is compatible to a picture of the life developing not only in the sea, but also on a firm surface.

Dark lightnings generate an anti-matter and gamma radiation in Earth atmosphere

Тёмные молнии порождают антиматерию и гамма-излучение в атмосфере Земли      The group of scientists under the leadership of physicist Joseph Duayer (Joseph Dwyer) from Florida institute of technology (USA) carried out modeling of processes of formation of gamma flashes in Earth atmosphere — puzzles lasting 0,2-3,5 ms with energy to 20 MEV which are often resulting in temporary incapacity of sensors of satellites on low Earth orbit.

Вопреки ожиданиям, часть античастиц, регистрируемых на орбите Земли, приходит не от далёких чёрных дыр, а, напротив, снизу, из земной атмосферы. Пока лишь модель Дуайера успешно объясняет это. (Иллюстрация NASA.)

Contrary to expectations, the part of the antiparticles registered in an orbit of Earth, comes not from far black holes, and, on the contrary, from below, from the terrestrial atmosphere. While only Duayer's model successfully explains it. (Illustration NASA. )

    According to the created model, lightnings are responsible for this phenomenon, however, quite unusual — giving very little visible radiation which is almost imperceptible in a cloud layer.
     Normal lightnings are characterized by the slow electrons bearing an electric charge either on the earth, or in other part of a cloud. Contrary to it, dark lightnings as they are called by researchers, are connected with high-speed electrons (almost with light speeds) which at collision with molecules of gases of air generate gamma beams. And those generate electrons and their contrast — positrons, the antiparticles of the electron which have been already found by space offices of NASA. Positrons, by itself, face other molecules of air and form even more gamma beams. And so on — until then while process won't fade:
    So, before us something like the natural accelerator with positive feedback. Thanks to such outstanding parameters dark lightnings have to even quicker usual reduce tension in that part of a cloud where arise as transfer an electric charge more effectively. In this regard there are they less often than usual lightnings — according to modern data, thousands (or several thousand) aren't more often than once a year.
    Gamma radiation how strongly generated by such processes? Question not idle because radiation arises at heights chosen by airliners. So, on 12 200 m of a dose of radiation from dark lightnings are comparable with 10 x-ray pictures of a thorax or a dose which the person receives for a year from a natural background and products (bananas and so forth), radioactive isotopes containing small doses.
    However gamma radiation from dark lightnings is capable to reach a maximum at the height of 4 900 m where it can be about 10 times more powerful and equal to a dose received by us at the general x-ray tomography of all organism or from a natural background, but in 10 years of life. As the majority of flights of civil aviation pass on 9–12 km, for one flight planes on the average visit this most dangerous zone twice.
    Nevertheless, according to calculations, only in rare instances people, without guessing it, can be subject to considerable radiation from dark lightnings, Joseph Duayer notices, specifying that doses, apparently, never reach really dangerous values. That is radiation from dark lightnings — it not of what it is necessary to be afraid. At the same time while remains not clear as far as the neutrons which have been beaten out from an airliner by such gamma radiation, can be dangerous to onboard electronics of a vessel.
   Authors of work planned experimental search of the such phenomena for the near future in the atmosphere.

Engineers learned to store microwaves

Схема работы хранилища для микроволн. А - режим пропускания излучения, B - режим хранения    Engineers from Kyoto university developed and assembled the first device which is capable to store and reserve electromagnetic radiation with preservation of its phase properties. The description of "trap" is laid out in the form of a pre-print in archive of Kornelsky university, and its short structure describes the blog Technology Review.

    The device is supplied with two condensers of variable capacity. At setup of condensers for one length of a wave all microwave radiation which gets to it, is absorbed and "archived". If to change the capacity of condensers, earlier absorbed waves leave the storage, thus all their phase properties remain former.

    Earlier to accumulate electromagnetic radiations it was possible when using, for example, atoms of rubidium and caesium which have a set of the raised power levels. The last were used for storage of energy of photons, and reradiation was stimulated with a special impulse. Thus it is impossible to call such atoms full-fledged storage of waves as their "razarkhivirovaniye" always leads to full loss of a phase of photons.

   The new device is developed on technology of metamaterials. Metamaterials call the artificial materials which properties depend first of all on their structure, instead of on a chemical composition. They can be used, for light curvature for the purpose of creation of unusual lenses or so-called invisible raincoats. The scale of elements in such materials has to be less than length of a wave of the radiation passing through them. The principles of creation of metamaterials also apply to management of heat or seismic waves.

Scientists, using a tiny sound lasso, ensnared microscopic objects

Звуковое лассо     Vortex educations can be different, from huge and deadly tornadoes to small and safe whirlwinds which can't be seen unaided by a look. And if from big whirlwinds and a tornado it is necessary to escape, tiny whirlwinds it is possible to force to work for advantage of science. From such tiny whirlwind created by means of ultrasonic waves, scientists created some kind of sound lasso, a trap in which it is possible to catch and by means of which it is possible to move different microscopic objects.
      In article published in the Applied Physics Letters online edition, researchers from department of mechanical engineering of Bristol university and university of medical sciences and technologies of Dundee institute showed that various tiny particles, such as living cells and various nanoparticles can be ensnared a sound whirlwind. This whirlwind operating as a sound lasso, it is possible to operate rather simply, slowly and carefully moving the caught microscopic particles. Such technology can be used for the solution of rather wide range of tasks, such, as "assembly" of artificial fabrics from a set of separate cages, assembly of difficult nanomaterials and metamaterials.
    At the heart of the developed technology the acoustic whirlwinds described by so-called mathematical functions of Bessel lie. These functions define configuration and dynamics of a sound lasso, a vector of an impulse of its linear and rotary moment which can force the captured objects to rotate or move in the necessary direction.

Пойманные в ловушку частицы

     The sound lasso represents the round device as a part of which there are 16 sources of ultrasound, each of which is capable to reproduce the sound fluctuations extending in the certain direction and having own frequency, amplitude and phase shift. The combination of the sound waves radiated by all sources, leads to creation in the operational volume of the device of the vortex sound fluctuations having in advance calculated characteristics. Areas of minima of these fluctuations are actually a trap, and movements of fronts of pressure of a sound wave forces the caught particles to move in the necessary direction.
     Bruce Drinkuoter (Bruce Drinkwater), the professor in the field of ultrasonic technologies of department of mechanical engineering of Bristol university, tells: "Our researches showed that by means of a whirlwind of an ultrasonic lasso we can take and move to the right place of a particle on any trajectory. But the most interesting is that our method is absolutely contactless, safe and it perfectly is suitable for manipulation with such things, as the cages considered under a microscope. With small modifications the technology developed by us can become part of product production lines on which elements of human fabrics and artificial organs" will be made.

Physicists assumes that on a collider one more type of a boson of Higgs was found

Столкновение частиц в коллайдере    That opening of a boson of Higgs already took place doesn't cause already in anybody doubt. But scientists-physicists still aren't sure of that, particle how found by them or particles meet their expectations. At the meeting which has taken place on Saturday of the American physical society of physics again were engaged in discussion of the found boson of Higgs, a particle which gives weight to other particles. And at the main subject of discussion there was a pronounced thought that recent opening of a boson of Higgs is big disappointment because it didn't bring them any surprises. Nevertheless, the majority of scientists feed big hope to find in the near future Higgs's bosons of other types, disappearing in the same power area in which there is found "a particle of God".
   "Now there is a set of theoretical models in which more difficult structure of area in which is is defined or there are Higgs's bosons" - Marcus Klyyut (Markus Klute), the scientist-physicist from Massachusetts Institute of Technology tells, - "Some of these theories allow possibility of existence of five or more types of a boson of Higgs, differing from each other on weight".
   In March of physics at last finally confirmed that the particle found on the biggest in the world the accelerator of particles, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), actually is Higgs's boson. This particle has weight, by 126 times surpassing mass of a proton that completely corresponds to Standard model, the main modern theory of physics of elementary particles. According to this model Higgs's boson is connected with Higgs's field, a power field which penetrates space and "fills" other particles with weight.
   Detection of a boson of Higgs who is keeping within a framework of theories, became something like disappointment for scientists-physicists who hoped to find something that would turn head over heels all physical theories. "In November I was suppressed by that fact that the made discovery perfectly fits into a framework of modern theories" - Marcus Klyyut tells, - "This condition is called as "a post-opening depression"".
   But researchers hope that in the near future they should learn more many about Higgs's boson, including and, whether the found boson is unique. The main hope of scientists is the Large Hadron Collider which after reconstruction has to become operational in 2015 and to come to the maximum capacity that will allow scientists to investigate higher power ranges.
   Hints on the forthcoming opening already now can be found in an array of collected scientific information. In December, 2012 in the data collected by one of experiments the TANK the second splash indicating possibility of existence of one more type of a boson of Higgs, differing from found by weight was found. However, this additional splash was registered only by the equipment of one experiment, other scientific devices installed on a collider, didn't register and didn't confirm anomaly existence.
   "Thanks to that the question "whether Higgs's found boson is "standard" or not", remains open, we hope for continuation of researches in this direction" - Michael Peskin, the physicist from National laboratory of linear SLAC accelerators of Stendfordsky university tells, - "And we will continue our scientific "game" later this decade".
   After the collider will earn by one of scientific theories which are going to check experimentally учены again and the accuracy of carried-out measurements will rise several times, the theory of "supersymmetry" which defines is that each of particles has an imperceptible twin particle which it is difficult, but it is possible "to catch". These twin particles can serve as an explanation of existence of a mysterious dark matter to which share the most part of a matter in the Universe falls.
  "Now scientists-physicists can explain distinctly only 4 percent of of what the Universe" consists - Thomas Koffas (Thomas Koffas), the scientist-physicist from Karleton's (Carleton University) university tells, Canada, - "Than the remained 96 percent are, we have no the slightest concept, but we are going to find out it in the near future".

It is declared registration of particles of a dark matter

    CDMS collaboration (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, "Cryogenic search of a dark matter") declared registration of traces of a dark matter with probability three sigma, that is 99,81%. Certainly, sure detection of a dark matter in shape wimps which search conducts CDMS, requires five sigma as it was with Higgs's boson, however and the result in 99,81% deserves some attention.
Так выглядят кремниевые детекторы, применявшиеся в эксперименте CDMS-II. (Здесь и ниже иллюстрации Fermilab.)

So the silicon detectors applied in experiment of CDMS-II look. (Here and lower than the illustration Fermilab. )

    Though the word "Wimp" (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle) means poorly interacting massive particle, some opportunities for registration of its collision with a usual matter nevertheless are. If dispersion section wimps on an atomic nucleus very much, is possible their direct detection by means of the semiconductor germanic and silicon detectors being underground (for shielding from space beams which would give a lot of noise) and cooled to 0,04 K.
     After experiments on search by means of the germanic detectors which were more sensitive in the range over 15 GEV, physicists was engaged in check below this range. The silicon detectors worse working above the called threshold and were for this purpose used it is better — to 15 GEV. Following the results of supervision with silicon detectors (CDMS-II) it was succeeded to register traces of three collisions vimps with kernels of usual atoms. Expected quantity of such events in case they would be noise, is equal 0,7.
     Though participants of experiment believe that it and is long-awaited wimp, a basic particle of a dark matter, other points of view express also. Data of CDMS-II on these events assume weight wimp in 8,6 GEV — and it considerable easier particle, than it was expected physical community. Let's tell, data of the magnetic alpha spectrometer established on ISS, quite recently, it seems, spoke well for detection wimps with a weight around 250 GEV that suited all from the theoretical point of view though the statistical importance of results and was insufficient.

Вимп, подобный найденному, намного легче ожиданий большинства физиков и предварительных результатов магнитного альфа-спектрометра.

 Wimp similar found, is much easier than expectations of the majority of physicists and preliminary results of a magnetic alpha spectrometer.

     Besides long time was claimed that weight wimp has to be at least in tens times more masses of a proton, and in such portrait of 8,6 GEV "does not lay down" because here doesn't smell even as tenfold excess on weight.
   On the other hand, information received in other experiment — CoGeNT, testifies to weight wimp around 7–11 GEV — as well as some interpretations of the gamma radiation received by a space gamma telescope of "Fermi" from the center of our Galaxy.

Friday, April 19, 2013

Germany of one-nuclear thickness will be able to replace in the future silicon in semiconductors and electronics

Кристалл германия      When speech comes about a material having thickness in only one atom and having huge prospects for application in semiconductors and electronics, the first that occurs, the decanter is. But speech now will go not about the countess, and about the new material known as german which was created by scientists-chemists from Ohio university (Ohio State University). Germanan, as well as a decanter, has thickness in one atom, only its crystal lattice consists not of atoms of carbon, and atoms Germany. The whole set of exclusive properties of a new material does him by very perspective candidate for silicon replacement in semiconductor devices of the future.
Researchers and engineers used germaniye for creation of the first experimental chips more than 60 years ago, but later this material yielded the position to silicon, as to more widespread material, simpler in practical application. However, remarkable electric and semiconductor properties Germany force scientists again and again to pay the attention to this material. "The majority of people considers a decanter as the most perspective material for future electronics" - Joshua Goldberger (Joshua Goldberger), the scientist-chemist from Ohio university tells, - "But silicon and germaniye are materials of the present, their properties are perfectly studied for last 60 years. It is necessary to develop only new forms of these materials and new technologies that will allow to use further these materials in electronic industry, instead of to pass to the new materials which properties are still studied not up to the end".

Получение германана

   Turned out one-nuclear germaniye carries out electrons ten times faster, than silicon, and five times quicker, than usual germaniye. It means that the conductor from such Germany, located on a chip crystal, will be able to pass through itself a bigger electric current. Germany is more chemically steady than silicon, it isn't oxidized at contact with air or water. In addition, it absorbs light that means big prospect of this material for use in solar batteries better.
    Scientists though managed to receive earlier german, but it were very small quantities which are obviously insufficient for use of such material in mass production. And to receive german in large numbers Goldberger and his team developed a unique method.

Свойства германана

    In usual conditions of germaniye has a form of multilayered crystals. Layers, atom one thick, connect with each other and each layer has very changeable structure. To researchers Germany between which germanic layers atoms of calcium were located was necessary to grow up special crystals. Subsequently calcium was dissolved and removed by means of water, having left empty chemical bonds Germany. These communications then contacted atoms of hydrogen, having made structure of layers Germany is much stabler and stronger that allowed to separate their intact from the general crystal.
   Now Goldberger's group plans carrying out extensive researches of all properties of the received material, Germany of one-nuclear thickness. And only after that it will be possible to start thinking of practical application german in electronic industry.
   Materials about carried out by Goldberger and his team researches and their results were published in the last issue of the ACS Nano magazine.

How to turn cellulose into starch

Как превратить целлюлозу в крахмал    By 2050th year human population, by some estimates, will reach 9 billions. Even if to leave behind reasoning brackets on a subject "That becomes with environment? ", from one question to wave away it won't turn out in any way. How to feed this crowd?

Целлюлозные волокна бумажного полотенца под электронным микроскопом (фото Dennis Kunkel Microscopy).

Cellulose fibers of a paper towel under an electronic microscope (Dennis Kunkel Microscopy photo).

    Researchers from Virginsky polytechnical institute (USA), apparently, found a way of the solution of this problem. The group of scientists under the leadership of Percival Cheung managed to turn cellulose into starch, is more exact — in one of its polysaccharides under the name amylase.
    The author of work created an artificial biochemical chain which in detail describe in the PNAS magazine. Among the used enzymes are called endoglukonaza, cellobiogidroliza, various fosforilaza etc. All of them were received from bacteria, mushrooms and plants, it was necessary to arrange only them in the correct order and to adjust reaction conditions. As both cellulose, and starch represent glucose polymers, sense of all procedure in changing an arrangement of communications between monomers.
    About a third of raw materials turned into the starch-amilozu, remained was hydrolyzed to glucose which could be used for receiving ethanol by means of yeast. In fact, the created fermentativny chain allows to dispose of agricultural vegetable resources more economically (or it is perhaps more eco-friendly). For example, green parts of cereal cultures which go on a forage to cattle, it is possible to use both in the food industry, and for receiving biofuel. Besides, it is possible to transform to starch and that cellulose from which paper is put that adds to a method of ecological "points".
    The method of transformation of cellulose in starch still demands completion that it could be used in the industry, however its advantages already are now clear: he doesn't demand neither any additional chemical reagents, nor especially difficult equipment, is besides safe for environment in view of lack of toxic waste.

Whether it is possible to transfer information, without exchanging particles?

Можно ли передавать информацию, не обмениваясь частицами?    The group of scientists of Saudi Arabia and the USA under the leadership of Hatim Salikh (Hatim Salih) from the Scientific and technical small town of a name of king Abdoul-Aziz ibn Saod claims that developed an information transfer method between a source and the recipient without an exchange of any physical particles.
    "Well here, as usual, sensational nature for didn't regret even the school program... " — the reader will think and will be to some extent right. But only to extremely small degree.
    In heart of the designed device — a set of beam splitters — devices from prisms and mirrors (simplifying a little) with very high reflecting ability. When one party of an information channel (Alice) sends a photon through the first beam splitter, and the second (Bob) has the detector directly behind this device, Bob can either activate the detector, or not activate it. While the detector is switched off, the photon exists in superposition of simultaneous conditions, in one of which it will be reflected, and in other — is passed through a beam splitter that will allow it to interfere most with itself after reflection in two correctly located mirrors.
    But when Bob detector is switched on, the situation changes: wave function of a photon is compelled коллапсировать, and the particle has to choose what of two conditions should be "preferred".

Схема обмена информацией без частиц (иллюстрация Hatim Salih et al.).

The scheme of exchange of information without particles (the illustration Hatim Salih et al. ) .

    The second beam splitter is located where both potential routes of a photon are crossed, and behind this beam splitter Bob too has a detector. When concerning the detector and a beam splitter two more mirrors are correctly located, the configuration of this element as a whole starts repeating the first that leads to emergence of a series of "loops" in the form of a rhombus.
    As a result the quantum effect of Zenon according to which a certain metastable condition will break up the later starts working, than more often it will measure by means of devices. In this case Bob can tell to Alice, whether all his detectors, without need to pass at least one photon among themselves and Alice are switched on. After all if all detectors work, in game Zenon's quantum effect, and wave function of a photon constantly коллапсирует enters the same condition of high probability — reflected, forcing a photon to give out a signal on one of two output detectors on Alice's party. Well and if Bob all detectors are switched off, the repeated interference of wave function with by itself leads to activation of the second of Alice's two detectors.
   Certainly, the described scheme isn't ideal. If Bob includes only one of the remote detectors being in the following elements of system, wave function of a photon will reach a condition when it, most likely, will manage to be registered on that part of installation that is under Bob control, so, the goal — exchange of information without a photon parcel — won't be reached.
    To remove this problem, researchers used that they call "Zenon's chain quantum effect". The idea of a trick in that secondary contours of system a beam splitter — the detector dumped wave function at the end of each big contour so that probability of detection of a photon on Bob party though didn't disappear, but never reached too great values.
    As scientists believe, the infinite number of primary and secondary contours in such system has to guarantee that the photon will always force to work the correct detector on Alice's party and never will finish the way in one of Bob detectors that will mean absolutely free communication from particles between Alice and Bob.

Иллюстрация John Richardson.

Scientists suggested to receive food from wood

    The American bioengineers developed technology of receiving food starch from wood cellulose commercially. The technique of processing of cellulose is described in article which is published in PNAS. The review of article gives ScienceNow.
    For receiving starch commercially authors suggest to use waste of woodworking productions. According to results of research, from 200 kilograms of cellulose will probably receive to 20 kilograms of starch which will provide the person with carbohydrates for 80 days. The cost of such transformation in the current prices will make one million dollars.
    At the same time, scientists assume that further researches will allow to simplify and reduce the price of procedure, having reduced the cost of receiving starch to 50 cents on the person in day. In the presence of 100 billions tons of cellulose annually, authors of article find it possible to receive to 4,5 billions tons of starch that twice will exceed world production grain and will provide with food to 30 percent of the population which will occupy a planet by 2050.
Опилки    For receiving starch from cellulose scientists use two sets of enzymes which develop genetically modified bacteria. The first group of enzymes decomposes cellulose to couples of molecules of beta glucose (cellobioz). Then the second set of enzymes will transform the received connection to amylase — one of the starch polysaccharides, consisting of alpha glucose chains.
   As a result of process the sweetish starched substance turns out. In spite of the fact that only a third of cellulose is entirely processed in amylase, withdrawal of transformation is usual glucose. It, on a plan of scientists, it is possible to use for biofuel production.
   The offered method can become alternative to modern ways of receiving biofuel which use corn and a sugar cane in pure form. As reported in 2012 of Deutsche Welle, with arrival of such types of fuel to Europe with a new force debate how production of bioethanol influences a world situation with security with the food began.

Thursday, April 18, 2013

The biggest in the world a wind power station, London Array, completely became operational

Ветряная электростанция London Array    End of a construction of the first stage of a wind power station of London Array and connection of the last, 175th turbine of the wind generator in the general power supply system made this power plant the biggest wind power station in the world today. Though the construction of station was finished in December of this year, just now all its turbines passed finishing tests then they were consistently connected to the general power system of Great Britain. Now the total capacity of all generators of a wind power station of London Array makes 630 MWt.
    The wind power station of London Array is located on removal of 20 kilometers from the coast of Kent County which settles down in the southeast of Great Britain. The power plant consists of 175 wind generators, 3.6 MWt everyone, 90 square kilometers placed into the square. Plans on construction of power plant of London Array were considered since 2006, and actually construction was begun in 2011.
Морская электрическая подстанция
     "London Array power plant - essential achievement in the field of development of the "green" power scooping environmentally friendly energy from renewable sources" - tells Tony Cocker (Tony Cocker), the president of the E-ON UK company which, together with the Dong Energy and Masdar companies, has the share in London Array power plant, - "Now this biggest wind power station in the world is capable to make such quantity of electric energy which is enough for supply of nearly half a million houses. Introduction in a system of power plant of London Array will allow to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in Earth atmosphere by 900 thousand tons annually".
    It was originally planned that the capacity of power plant of London Array will make 1 GW. Such total capacity this will have power plant after end of all stages of its further development. It should be noted that additional turbines of wind generators of the second turn of power plant which will be mounted later, will increase its capacity to 870 MWt.
   It is necessary to remind that about a year ago the palm of the biggest wind power station was received by Walney wind farm power plant after introduction in operation of its second turn then its capacity became equal 367.2 MWt. Now the first place passed to power plant of London Array and, most likely, it will manage to hold on there much more long thanks to that isn't conducted now any more constructions of other powerful wind power stations. But in the future everything will change, after all Sweden and South Korea I plan to begin construction of own wind power plants, 2.5 GW.

The printed thermoelectric generators will make economic process of utilization of unnecessary heat

Напечатанные термоэлектрические генераторы     Thermoelectric materials are materials which work at the expense of a difference of temperatures between their surfaces and will transform heat to electric energy. If to make of such materials, for example, a jacket, such jacket could recharge the mobile phone at the expense of a difference of body temperature of the person and ambient temperature. Despite so promising prospects, the high cost of materials, high cost of production and low efficiency of thermoelectric generators, do economically unprofitable their practical application. However, thanks to the new technology developed by specialists of Institute of technologies of materials of Fraunhofer (Fraunhofer Institute for Material and Beam Technology), production of thermoelectric generators can become rather inexpensive to start considering seriously their universal use.
    Used for production of thermoelectric generators the technology not strongly differs from process of a usual inkjet printing. Using the jet printer and ink with special structure, scientists made thin and flexible sheets of thermoelectric generators of Fraunhofer's institute (thermoelectric generators, TEG). As ink for the press of these electric generators active polymeric paste from cheap thermoelectric material which to be put on a film surface with the thinnest layer is used. And use of more perfect technologies of the three-dimensional press will be able to transform to the thermoelectric generator a surface of any subject even with very difficult form.
    Films with the thermoelectric generators printed on their surfaces can be used for a covering of internal surfaces of coolers which are used for cooling of water or other heat carriers, pipelines on which in reservoirs the water cooling coppers of thermal and reactors of nuclear power plants is dumped. It will allow to return back in the form of electric energy a quantity of heat which earlier simply went to dead losses.
     Efficiency of thermoelectric generators is very small, most effective of them can transform to electricity of only 15-20 percent of heat, and it is considered the most typical the indicator of efficiency equal to 8 percent. In case thermoelectric generators and their installation don't demand big expenses, their use will be reasonable from the economic point of view. It also managed to achieve the scientist from Fraunhofer's institute, thanks to application of new type of a thermoelectric material and the inexpensive production technology. In addition, the new polymeric thermoelectric material is absolutely harmless in distinguish from other similar materials containing toxic and harmful substances, such as lead.
     New thermoelectric generators and technology of their production will be shown soon on the experimental cooler which becomes one of Messe exhibits in Hanover.

SV3 - the floating robot of the following generation from the Liquid Robotics company Wave Glider series

Робот SV3   In December of last year the Liquid Robotics company gained wide popularity thanks to its floating Wave Glider robots which in the autonomous made swimming from San Francisco to Australia, having established a world record of the longest distance passed by the robot of any type. The group of four robots one of which successfully reached Australia took part in a record heat of Wave Glider robots, the second withdrew for technical reasons, and two more robots continue now movement towards coast of Japan. And recently the Liquid Robotics company presented the SV3 robot - the new robot of the following generation of the Wave Glider series.
  Besides a record heat through the Pacific Ocean, the main model of "an underwater glider" Wave Glider which has received the name SV2, is used by a set of research and other organizations worldwide. From the moment of emergence in 2009 of the first SV2 robot the Liquid Robotics company made about 200 such robots a third from which constantly is in swimming. Thus, in certain cases SV2 robots use big groups till 10-20 robots at the same time.
   The new SV3 robot, as well as the SV2 robot, consists of the connected among themselves surface and underwater parts. The surface part of the new SV3 robot reminds now a surfboard in which are located a set of the sensors, allowing to collect scientific oceanographic data, such as concentration of salts, water temperature, characteristics of waves, concentration of the oxygen dissolved in water and other data. From above also tiny meteorological station collecting meteorological data is established to surface part. All electronic the equipment, including above-mentioned sensors, the navigation system on the basis of GPS, the computer and reception передающаяя the equipment receive a food from the solar batteries located on a surface of "surfboard".
Роботы SV3 и SV2
    The SV3 robot uses just the same principle of movement, as well as the SV2 robot. It moves at the expense of underwater part, "an underwater glider" which, using energy of currents and waves, moves forward itself and pulls for itself surface part. The SV3 robot has length of 2.9 meters and can bear on itself a payload, weighing up to 45 kilograms while the 2.1-meter SV2 robot could bear only 18 kilograms of freight. Surface area of wings of underwater part of the SV3 robot is more, than at underwater part SV2, and solar batteries due to bigger efficiency and the area develop three times more energy, than SV2 robot batteries. All this together means that the SV3 robot can overcome bigger distance, remain in the sea more long, ensure functioning of bigger number of sensors and other equipment, than than his predecessor.
    The Sami the interesting is that the SV3 robot received the rowing screw put in action by the electric motor. This engine receiving energy from solar and storage batteries, turns on only when the robot needs additional draft when it faces a cross-current when it is required to increase at any cost the speed of its movement or sharply to change the movement direction.
   The computer control system for the SV3 robot underwent big modernization. Now it the computer on the basis of the Linux operating system which has ample opportunities on collecting, processing, storage and data transmission operates. The robot itself is able to estimate now the data and first of all to transmit only those data which represent the greatest interest for researchers through the satellite.
   "Along with other new opportunities, ability of the new robot to collect oceanographic data more long time, to carry out their preliminary processing has to interest almost all our clients" - the president of the Liquid Robotics company Bill Vess (Bill Vass), - "And tells those who already has at itself(himself) robots of the previous generation of SV2, we can offer their modernization to the SV3 level".

Bugatti establishes a new world record of the speed gathered by serially released car

Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport Vitesse   In Bugatti company assets already there is the world record of the speed established in 2010 by the Veyron Super Sport car which managed to disperse to the speed of 430.98 km/h. But, recently in the world there were some cars of other producers which speed closely came nearer to Veyron Super Sport speed so palm transition in this case was only a matter of time. Therefore remained anything else, except how to establish the Bugatti companies the next own record that they managed to make thanks to a roadster of Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport Vitesse which became the fastest serial car in the world.
Bugatti Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport Vitesse #2
    The Volkswagen company which is the Bugatti founder company, has own racing and test route near Ayr Lessin (Ehra-Lessien). Anthony Liu (Anthony Liu), the Chinese racer and the businessman, brought Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport Vitesse to this route and squeezed out all possible of each of 1183 horsepowers of the engine of this car, having dispersed it to record speed in 431.072 km/h, and the average speed of movement made 408.84 km/h.
    For protection of the driver against a wind and noise during movement in the car with opened astride high speed at Vitesse the special spoiler is established. The high-speed chassis, high-speed shock-absorbers, all-wheel drive transmission and carbonaceous body of the car allow to transform the enormous capacity of the 8-liter W16 engine to pure speed.
Рекордная скорость
    "It was the fascinating moment" - told to Anthony Liu right after record arrival, - "During training arrivals we managed to exceed a mark of 400 km/h and that fact that I managed to establish a record, forces me to be proud of myself and results of works of specialists of the Bugatti company. The car, even at such improbable speed, remained steady and perfectly obeyed management. And the open top allowed me to take pleasure in a sound of the most powerful motor".
     It is necessary to remind that the first Grand Sport Vitesse car was presented on the Geneva motor show last year. Now it, already as the world record-holder, will be presented on the Shanghai motor show where only eight exclusive copies of Veyron 16.4 Grand Sport Vitesse at the price of 2.61 million dollars will be offered the interested buyers. Cars of this series will have traditional black-orange coloring and on them the special limiter of speed will be installed.

Chipleta - the tiny microchips, capable to make "clever" any subject

Чиплеты    The tiny microchips called "Chipleta", were developed in the Research Dead Alto center of the Xerox company. At each of such chips which size doesn't exceed the size of a grain of sand, is, let and the small, computing capacity and other functions allowing it to become the tiny microprocessor, the device of the data storage, the difficult logical scheme or part of the microelectromechanical system (MEMS), sensors of various parameters carrying out function, for example, illumination, temperature, pressure, movement and acceleration.
   By means of the specialized device constructed on the principles of the laser printer, Chipleta can be very precisely located and focused in space, forming the superthin computer of any form and a configuration which can be increased almost infinitely. Combination of such laser technology with technologies of the three-dimensional press of the following generation will allow to create in the future any subjects with the computer built in them which will allocate them with a wide set of opportunities and artificial intelligence of various level.
   Imagine the subjects made by means of the three-dimensional press and incorporating computers. Possibilities of this technology are almost infinite and are limited only to the imagination of the person. "Clever" clothes ", clever" children's toys, a highly sensitive covering for the robots, providing to them wide scale of feelings, medical implants and much, many other. And computing systems, the personal computers constructed on base Chipleta, can get absolutely new very exotic forms and functions.
   It is necessary to notice that development of manufacturing techniques Chipleta and laser technology of their spatial placement was conducted by specialists of the Xerox company by request Management of perspective research programs of the Pentagon of DARPA and National scientific fund. And a main aim which was pursued by this development, possibility of distribution of abilities of processing, storage and an exchange of digital information on all surface or volume of any object, instead of concentration of these functions within a crystal of one chip is.
   Researchers recognize that the technology of simultaneous placement of hundreds thousands developed by them and millions Chipleta while is very far from perfect and years of work are coming them as early as before it will be possible to start applying practically this technology at production of various "clever" subjects. Nevertheless, these achievements indicate possibility of realization of all above-sounded ideas and that the era of "clever" things is not far off and if behind mountains, not such and far.