Contrary to expectations, the part of the antiparticles registered in an orbit of Earth, comes not from far black holes, and, on the contrary, from below, from the terrestrial atmosphere. While only Duayer's model successfully explains it. (Illustration NASA. )
According to the created model, lightnings are responsible for this phenomenon, however, quite unusual — giving very little visible radiation which is almost imperceptible in a cloud layer.
Normal lightnings are characterized by the slow electrons bearing an electric charge either on the earth, or in other part of a cloud. Contrary to it, dark lightnings as they are called by researchers, are connected with high-speed electrons (almost with light speeds) which at collision with molecules of gases of air generate gamma beams. And those generate electrons and their contrast — positrons, the antiparticles of the electron which have been already found by space offices of NASA. Positrons, by itself, face other molecules of air and form even more gamma beams. And so on — until then while process won't fade:
So, before us something like the natural accelerator with positive feedback. Thanks to such outstanding parameters dark lightnings have to even quicker usual reduce tension in that part of a cloud where arise as transfer an electric charge more effectively. In this regard there are they less often than usual lightnings — according to modern data, thousands (or several thousand) aren't more often than once a year.
Gamma radiation how strongly generated by such processes? Question not idle because radiation arises at heights chosen by airliners. So, on 12 200 m of a dose of radiation from dark lightnings are comparable with 10 x-ray pictures of a thorax or a dose which the person receives for a year from a natural background and products (bananas and so forth), radioactive isotopes containing small doses.
However gamma radiation from dark lightnings is capable to reach a maximum at the height of 4 900 m where it can be about 10 times more powerful and equal to a dose received by us at the general x-ray tomography of all organism or from a natural background, but in 10 years of life. As the majority of flights of civil aviation pass on 9–12 km, for one flight planes on the average visit this most dangerous zone twice.
Nevertheless, according to calculations, only in rare instances people, without guessing it, can be subject to considerable radiation from dark lightnings, Joseph Duayer notices, specifying that doses, apparently, never reach really dangerous values. That is radiation from dark lightnings — it not of what it is necessary to be afraid. At the same time while remains not clear as far as the neutrons which have been beaten out from an airliner by such gamma radiation, can be dangerous to onboard electronics of a vessel.
Authors of work planned experimental search of the such phenomena for the near future in the atmosphere.