Wednesday, April 3, 2013

Robots happen different

   Robots which it is possible to meet in comic drawings, is, as a rule, clumsy creations which are pursued by ill fate, and their adventures cause usually laughter. In turn robots — heroes of science-fiction works — it is wise and hardworking cars which the look a little or don't differ at all from people and usually exceed the person by efficiency of actions, and sometimes happen are allocated with restless character.

   Robots in which the science and equipment is engaged, namely about them speech will go, are the devices capable automatically to carry out charged them function. Robots can carry out purposeful actions in case of changes in the environment surrounding them or after receiving from the outside of new orders. In the described robots the mechanical part allows them to move and manipulate, answering from the point of view of carried-out operations to feet and hands of the person. Reception of information is carried out via numerous sensors and the devices which are carrying out such functions, as sense organs of the person: touch, hearing, sight, sense of smell, taste and balance. Robots have a control center which analyzes information which was stored in memory received from the outside and which in this regard can be considered as very modest imitation of a brain of the person.

   I consciously compared subnodes of which the robot, with human organs as, despite similarity in carried-out functions, the principle of their action, as a rule, absolutely other consists. Therefore robots, as a rule, different from humanoid machine guns, androids and гомункулусов, science-fiction novels occupying page interest us. However, separate cars which remind by the form the person are created, are able to go, exchange bows, say welcoming speeches or as the hardworking housewife, to scurry about with a brush on the apartment. However meanwhile they didn't find broad application and serve most often for advertizing. They could be considered as big, very interesting toys which any father won't buy to the children because of extremely high price. I consciously used here the word "it would be possible". These cars weren't toys for representatives of science and equipment. At creation of such unique, single copies scientists and technicians solved many complex problems.

   Difficulties which should be overcome thus, were connected as with a mechanical design of all details of the robot, their miniaturization and development enough powerful engines, and technical reproduction of feelings of the person for needs of the robot. However creation of artificial control center by separate parts of the robot reacting and analyzing signals, "sense organs" of the robot received from the outside was the most important problem. The role of this "artificial intelligence" capable to training, reception and information interpretation, and also to management of work of different knots of the robot, play now electronic computers. It is necessary to tell that despite unprecedented development of electronics, improvement of a design of the COMPUTER and increase in their computing opportunities, these devices in many respects still concede to a brain of the person.

   At the same time many technical devices successfully carry out already functions of separate human organs. To take at least a TV camera and the radar. These are extremely exact organs of vision. The tactile sense is replaced with various sensors, such as touch switches which can be met already in radio receivers and TVs and which react to hand approach to them. Organs of hearing replace microphones, speech — loudspeakers and radio. It is possible to replace even organs of smell and flavoring bodies as their receptors of the point of view of equipment are only some kind of analyzer of a chemical composition. And other sense organs of the person reacting to changes of temperature, humidity and loading, can be imitated by various thermometers, hygrometers and тензометрами. Pay attention thus that the majority of these artificial "bodies" of feelings carries out the tasks, than appropriate authorities of the person much better. So for example, the TV camera can distinguish not only images in visible part of a range as an eye of the person, but also to work in infrared or ultra-violet strips of radiation that is inaccessible to a human eye. Technical devices much "more objectively". Let's take for example two people being in the same room. To one will seem that here it is cold, and to another it will be warm. The thermometer registers objectively room temperature, showing 180C. So, for robots many private problems were solved. In process of development of equipment there are more and more strong and easy constructional materials. More and more effective and tiny engines are applied. Now scientists and technicians have to solve a problem of as much as possible effective connection of all these listed above and constantly improved devices in a whole the robots created as a result of it, became closer to an ideal of the reasonable car, obedient to the person.

   And now I suggest you to track on the example of one of versions of robots, production and which application quickly develops in recent years, a long and laborious way which should be passed before such cars were constructed. These robots are intended first of all for movement of subjects and therefore them call automatic manipulators.
Look at the drawing illustrating history of improvement of tools, playing a role of "extender" of a hand of the person. Thanks to it it is possible to manipulate subjects which it is impossible to reach a hand. At first it was the usual stick, then a stick with a hook on the end. Nippers became the simple tool reminding on the action two fingers — big and index —. Nippers with the long handle allowed to grasp the subjects being at some distance, and to transfer them to other place. At last, there were devices in the form of a long stick or a core. On one its end there were nippers which could be reduced and parted by means of the handle located on the opposite end. The tool called the manual manipulator was so created. Garden tools by means of which it is possible to break, for example, apples can be an example of such manipulator and to cut branches growing highly.

  More difficult manual manipulators are created for scientists, especially for employees of nuclear laboratories on nuclear reactors. Thanks to such manipulators the operator carries out work, being in a safe place, far from sources of radiation hazardous to health. The manipulator with hinged connections passes through the thick insulation layer from a safe zone of laboratory in the reactor or to the room with radioactive isotopes. The operator watches the manipulator end through a special window in a wall. Elements for management of working body which along with hvatatel has also one or several hinged connections are outside removed. It allows not only to take and transfer subjects, but also to incline and turn them, for example, to pour contents of flasks and test tubes.

   Motive opportunities of the manipulator are characterized by so-called number of degrees of freedom. This number of possible movements which the manipulator can carry out. For example, the manipulator presented in drawing, can rotate in a reactor wall (rotation α), to rotate round the horizontal axis (rotation β), to move forward linearly along this axis (movement γ), to rotate in the hinge of the holder (rotation δ), to reduce and part nippers (movement ε). So, it has five degrees of freedom. Thus, the program of movements of working body of the manipulator can be very rich. The operator carries out difficult maneuvers by the subjects being in the neighboring room.

   The described manipulator - the device quite difficult. The next step — mechanization of the manual manipulator. Thus it is necessary to apply the separate engine to each degree of freedom of part of the manipulator. Electric, pneumatic and hydraulic motors are used for this purpose. And manipulators respectively are called electric, pneumatic or hydraulic. Management of operation of such manipulator is reduced to inclusion or switching off of separate engines. They are capable to perform work which demands application of a significant force. The person for its performance is and still still necessary. The task of the operator includes supervision over operation of the manipulator and making decision on the beginning or completion of the next maneuver. The person begins or finishes separate operations, pressing serially the buttons operating operation of engines. If work is performed cyclically, it is possible to automate manipulator operations. It is enough to attach a clockwork which will switch on and off at the right time the engine to the mechanized manipulator. To define this moment, it is necessary to watch closely operation of the manipulator. At supervision separate actions of the operator and periods between them are registered. On this basis the management clockwork becomes or programmed. The automatic manipulator carries out one for another all in advance planned actions entered into memory of a control unit. Thus, under invariable conditions of the environment of operation are carried out automatically, without direct participation of the person.

   We deal, thus, any more with usual, and with the automatic manipulator, with the robot operating on the program. It is necessary to allocate still it with "sense organs", that is the devices informing on, whether environment conditions changed. As a rule, it happens the block of switches, each of which informs on performance of one condition of correct functioning of the robot.

   The control unit can put also in action engines of the cars interfaced to the robot. With car transfer of a certain subject from the specified place, its installation on the boring machine, and then transfer of this subject in a box can be an example of interaction of the robot. Switches, or robot organs of touch, have to report to a control unit that:

  • the subject lies on the place and it can be taken away,
  • the boring machine is free,
  • the boring machine is ready to work,
  • the drill is established,
  • the box for ready details is on the place.
   Means, four switches, informing that each of the called conditions is executed are necessary at least. If an important role is played by the initial provision of a subject, for example, the cylinder has to hold the ground the basis, instead of lie on one side, the number of information switches can be increased. During the automatic operation of the robot very much two more questions have importance. First, the working body and all mobile parts put in action by separate engines, have to come back to strictly certain starting position always. For check additional information switches can be demanded. Secondly, the workplace which serves the robot, has to be completely automated as the person isn't able to work in one rhythm (synchronously) with high-speed and very exact machine gun. It is necessary to provide automatic giving of subjects on a certain place, from where, in our case, the robot takes away them.

   When all these conditions are satisfied, the robot carries out the next running cycle. If one condition isn't met at least, the robot can't carry out operation, moreover, such situation threatens with accident. The control unit disconnects all engines, works an alarm signal. This signal serves for the person as a sign that it is necessary to eliminate the reasons which have stopped operations of the robot.
The automatic manipulators produced now called by also industrial machine guns, serve for performance of many tasks. They are used, as a rule, at the hard and monotonous work demanding accuracy and speed, and also works in conditions, unhealthy. The robot — very expensive device needing many special devices with which it interacts. However it is very diligent and tireless worker. If the workplace served by the robot, is designed well, work goes accurately, often much quicker and more precisely than if it was carried out by the person. And in performance of some operations robots are simply irreplaceable. Unless it is possible to imagine now studying of a space or a bottom of the seas and oceans without machine guns robots?

   Robots even more often replace the person in performance of hard and dangerous work, facilitate physical and brainwork, influence change of the nature of human work. However always and everywhere the robot remains "servant" of the person, his assistant, instead of the equal partner, not completely independent deputy. This role of the person leading in relation to the robot won't change, irrespective of creation of more and more difficult devices, differing more and more high level of automation. They always remain obedient our will.

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