Tuesday, May 7, 2013

DARPA was succeeded to create the tiny thermal imager

DARPA удалось создать миниатюрный тепловизор  The defensive scientific agency DARPA declared a successful conclusion of work on creation of the tiny thermal imager which is very necessary to military. Now infrared devices of supervision with high can be made permissions in dimensions of ordinary devices of night vision and even less.

   The defensive contractor, the DRS Technologies company, I developed the infrared camera with pixels only five microns in size or five million shares of meter. It is comparable with a size of pixel of a camera of the ordinary smartphone and much less, than pixels on matrixes of modern thermal imagers. As at identical permission the new IK-sensor is 6 times less, in production it will be 36 times cheaper.

  Present thermal imagers or are very bulky and are established only on heavy machinery, or have the low permission (about 320х240 pixels) that it isn't enough for military use, for example from BPLA board. Today individual thermovision devices of supervision which will be rather cheap and compact that it was possible to equip with them each soldier are necessary.

DARPA удалось создать миниатюрный тепловизор

The new tiny thermal imager developed in DRS Technologies by request of DARPA. If such products put on a stream, infantrymen will receive for the first time wearable points thermal imagers

    Thermovision points will give huge advantage in fight as they provide detection of the heatcontrast purposes (for example the person against the district) even in the conditions of smoke, behind many easy shelters, under any conditions of illumination, during snow and a rain. Soldiers with thermal imagers can act surely even in the conditions of a continuous smoke hindrance whereas the opponent without similar devices will be helpless.

   Still it wasn't possible to reduce the size of pixels of the IK-matrix as at pixel reduction it becomes too susceptible to hindrances: "garbage" photons "hammer" the most part of pixel therefore the image is filled in with gray noise of hindrances.

   In DARPA don't explain, how it was succeeded to solve this problem, only emphasize that the sizes of pixels, instead of their quantity on a matrix are reduced. All technical details of technology concerning a ratio a signal noise while remain in a secret, but in DARPA say that the compact thermal imager gives the same qualitative picture, as well as larger analogs.

How considerably to accelerate a wireless network

   Scientists developed a new chip, the amplifier of power which will allow to increase the speed of the wireless Internet at 20-30 time.

Как радикально ускорить беспроводную сеть  The new chip was developed by the associate professor of electrical equipment Harish Krishnasvami from Columbia Engineering. It managed to collect the nanodimensional amplifier of millimetric waves on the basis of widespread CMOS technology. Amplifiers of power are applied in communication technologies and sensors to increase of a power level of a signal and providing a reliable communication at long distances.

   Amplifiers of power are used practically in all electronics: from phones and computers to up-to-date systems of satellite communication. However miniaturization and simultaneous accumulation of power of amplifiers faces a problem: nanodimensional CMOS schemes can't develop a large amount of energy at high frequencies. It is connected with that transistors become less and don't maintain a high voltage - they are suitable for speed, instead of for power more. At the same time to perspective communication systems, with a high capacity and range of action, are required both speed, and high capacity.

Как радикально ускорить беспроводную сеть

The new amplifier on the basis of nanodimensional CMOS transistors will allow to create high-performance wireless computer networks with big range of communication

  Harish Krishnasvami thought up a way to use some nanodimensional carefully synchronized CMOS transistors which can generate near 1Vt capacities on millimetric waves that in 5 times more capacities of modern amplifiers. New amplifiers are made by means of laying of nanodimensional CMOS chips at each other so that they worked under the big tension without speed loss. When using four 45-nanometer CMOS - transistors in the amplifier of power and combination of eight such amplifiers on one chip, it is possible to reach output power in 0,5 W with a frequency of 45 gigahertzes.

    The new amplifier can provide for the first time extremely high capacity of communication at long distances. For example on the basis of the new chip Wi-Fi can create city a network with a speed of data transmission up to 10 gigabit per second.

   This research was financed including by defensive scientific agency DARPA which is interested in creation of powerful distant communication systems with a high capacity.

Artificial 'clever skin' allows to feel a touch

Scientists made break in the field of tactile sense imitation.

Искусственная 'умная кожа' позволяет чувствовать прикосновение   The team from the USA and China created the experimental device which is capable to determine pressure in the same range, as finger-tips of the person.

 This achievement can accelerate development of the clever imitation leather, capable to feel the events on its surface.

  These sensors described in the Science magazine, will allow to develop more perfect robots possessing tactile feeling.

  This device consists of about 8000 transistors. Each of these transistors is capable to generate independently an electric signal when is exposed to mechanical influence.

  On sensitivity level, these transistors can be compared to tips of human fingers.

  "This technology has the wide range of applications, including robotics, microelectromechanical systems, computer interfaces and other areas which affect mechanical deformation".

Wednesday, May 1, 2013

How and when it is necessary to recharge the smartphone from a fire?

Как и когда нужно подзаряжать смартфон от костра?  The startup which is engaged in development of the technology created in National laboratory of a name of Lawrence in Berkeley (USA), presented a simple and inexpensive method of providing with electricity of 2,5 billion people in the developing world.

   The Point Source Power company uses for this purpose a little heterodox decision — a solid oxide fuel element. Stop, feet, tprr-at-at! What such fuel element? And where it is going to take hydrogen or at least methane in Africa? .

   The development of a startup bearing the name VOTO, is capable to do without these types of fuel. Also can work from... charcoal, firewood or other types of a biomass, including a press of a sugar cane, cow flat cakes and other, capable to burn. Differently, the device will be able to work not only in Rwanda and at Haiti, but even in Fallout world.

Два штырька и ручка. Если предпочитаете готовить на открытом огне — стальная кастрюля без дна и с прорезями сбоку, для защиты пластиковой ручки от оплавления. (Здесь и ниже фото Point Source Power.)

Two pins and handle. If you prefer to prepare on open fire — a steel pan without a bottom and with cuts sideways, for protection of the plastic handle against an oplavleniye. (Here and lower than Point Source Power photo. )

     For achievement of 700-800 °C demanded to start work, the fuel element simply is located in fire — an oven or even the open fire covered with something like a pan with a cut. After a warming up via the handle from a fuel element it is possible to power a bulb or the mobile phone and so forth.

     Certainly, novelty indicators not too impress: only 5 V at about 500 мА, standard parameters of recharge from USB. That is even the tablet can't be loaded, and iPhone will be powered tiresomely long (at continuous inclusion of Angry Birds — eternally). But what you want from the device weight in 236 g? By the way, on the end of the handle of a fuel element there is a LED bulb luminosity in 25 lm that approximately corresponds to a bulb of an incandescence of watts on six with a quarter of. Darkly? The oil lamp isn't brighter. On the other hand, after full charging of the device (during this time the proud owner will manage to prepare two-three dishes on an oven/fire) it accumulates 4 000 мА • h at a voltage of 1,2 V, that is 4,8 W • h. And then such LED analog of the quite good paraffin stove shines till 30 o'clock — that is two and a half nights in a row, and after all you prepare obviously more often.

     By itself, miracles don't happen. Though for work on such types of "fuel" the fuel battery is made extremely steady against pollutants like sulfur and the carbon, capable easily and easy to kill the vast majority of ordinary fuel batteries, all the same time of life of development equally to 3-4 months (at regular use). But also the battery of only $7, and the handle with analog of the elementary pilot — $17 will cost. You will tell, it isn't necessary for anybody as Africans and have no such money?

    Alas, whether there are at the African steady legal earnings or not — all the same it spends it for kerosene for lighting. Meanwhile after the last 15 years of a rise in prices for fuel kerosene rose in price much, and for its liter it is simple not to find less than a dollar so for this liquid which once was the cheapest option of evening lighting in house conditions, inhabitants of developing countries give $8–12 a month. Some dollars of times a quarter on this background look quite optimistically.

Пригород столицы Кении, одной из наиболее успешных в смысле электрификации стран Чёрной Африки. В таких местах VOTO будет нарасхват, ведь других источников электричества там просто нет.

Suburb of the capital of Kenya, one of the most successful that is electrification of the countries of Black Africa. In such places of VOTO will be in great demand, after all other sources of electricity there simply aren't present.

    Except clear economic advantage of system, it is useful in ecological sense. Paraffin stoves, by estimates of recent research, annually release about 270 million tons of black coal that is more than the level of a soot made by all world navigation into the atmosphere. By itself, it seriously influences world climate: one ton of coal in the atmosphere makes the same greenhouse influence as 700 tons of carbon dioxide, and the blow by air lasts not year and not ten. And it not to mention that 90 grams of coal which are forming at burning of each kilogram of kerosene, partially settle in lungs of people using these devices: impressive contribution, taking into account carcinogenicity of this substance...

    By the way, similar products for scouts everyone there and other tourists of Point Source Power I intend to sell and in the USA, and in the long term — and in other developed and rather developed countries. However, the price promise above, than in Africa.

"The magnetic hose" transferred for the first time a magnetic field to some distance

«Магнитный шланг» впервые передал магнитное поле на некоторое расстояние   "Magnetism influence in science is limited by its seeming insuperable weakness: the magnetic field quickly weakens with removal from object — Carles Navau (Carles Navau) from Autonomous university of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) reminds us.

     Together with group of colleagues the scientist tried to change a situation: to betray magnetic fields on long distances, "the magnetic hose" was created.

Здесь и ниже иллюстрации Carles Navau et al.

Here and lower than the illustration Carles Navau et al.

    The group of Mr. Navau tells that for creation of the device the understanding of became key that the constant magnetic field can be presented as a wave with an infinite length. It means that theoretically there are such materials by means of which the magnetic field can be operated the same as metamaterials with elements less than length of a wave of light operate the last.

    Experimental "the magnetic hose", representing a round pipe from superconducting and ferromagnetic materials, apparently, coped with this task. The pipe from twenty rings that is approximately much longer than the width, would suit this task as, by calculations, would transfer to the length about 90% of a magnetic field since one end on another more. But money, alas, didn't suffice even on a pipe from two rings. In a word, physics operated with a single ring (from BiPbSrCaCuO), the filled ferromagnetic alloy from cobalt and iron. Unfortunately, and here they were waited by difficulties: the ring from an expensive material appeared with a crack in the middle, from where the magnetic field "followed" outside, without reaching the opposite end...

    And nevertheless field measurements in a point of a crack showed that it has intensity in 0,8 mTl, at level of an initial field in 1,3 mTl. Differently, without "a magnetic hose" the field around a crack would be much weaker, and experiment appeared the first successful case of transfer of a magnetic field on distance.

    As scientists note, if the subsequent experiments show practical feasibility of such transfer (yes on bigger distance), it will be possible to speak about use of this mechanism for creation and control of elements of quantum computers.

Friday, April 26, 2013

ReRAM-memory, appears, also the accumulator

ReRAM-память, оказывается, ещё и аккумулятор   In random access memory for storage of information electrons which it is much less actually than atoms are used. Therefore to supervise their location in a cell it is difficult and to avoid dispersion of electrons (and losses of written-down information), the cell should be surrounded thick to nanomeasures with an insulator layer.

Стандартная ячейка ReRAM, одновременно являющаяся микроаккумулятором (здесь и ниже иллюстрация I.Valov et al.).

Standard cell of ReRAM which is at the same time the microaccumulator (here and lower illustration I.Valov et al. ) .

    Therefore many developers turn looks towards ReRAM (resistive memory with direct access), based on ions — usually one-nuclear particles which received or have lost any quantity of electrons. In such system electrons are already caught by ions, and in a thick insulator there is no need. At the same time without a layer of the insulator consisting of a set of atoms, the sizes of system are defined generally by parameters of an ion which is dimensionally close to single atom.

   For control of such ion in prototypes of memory two electrodes (we will tell, from silver and platinum) are used. Thus, the scheme starts bearing a faint resemblance to banal lithium - the ion accumulator in which for deduction of electrons ions too are used.

  Scientists under the leadership of Ilya Valov from Akhen's (Germany) Rhine and Westphalian technical university became interested in this similarity. For confirmation of ability of elements of new memory to play a role of microaccumulators researchers analysed the most modern ReRAM-samples of various producers. "Looking back back, it is possible to tell that presence of tension peculiar to accumulators, at ReRAM is axiomatic. But during nine-months consideration of work [before its publication in the magazine] we had to make huge efforts on an overpersuasion of colleagues". And it is clear, Mr. Valov adds, after all the voltage of ReRAM-cells can have three different basic mechanisms of emergence, and accurate fixing of comparative importance of each of them wasn't simple business.

   Opening means that the theoretical base used for the analysis of ReRAM, became outdated. It understood as set of memristor — the passive elements, capable to change the resistance depending on a charge proceeding through them. But, as showed research, in fact, the ReRAM elements are active and have own charge so mathematical ways for the description of work of these components are wrong.

Три сценария возникновения напряжения в ReRAM-элементе. Обратите внимание, в случае формирования нанонити накопления заряда не будет —  из-за короткого замыкания.

Three scenarios of emergence of tension in a ReRAM-element. Pay attention, in case of formation of a nanothread of accumulation of a charge won't be — because of short circuit.

    However, practice specified long ago that with our understanding of it like memory something not so. Inexplicable there was a long-term drift of parameters of separate cells of ReRAM. Really, now, when we understood that they can accumulate a charge, it becomes obvious that during the long work without this factor of property of ions in ReRAM are simply obliged to undergo changes.

   Therefore it is possible not only to overcome this problem, but also to create absolutely new types of electronics in which the power supply and non-volatile memory will be integrated into one chip.

Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Heating and cooling of electric cars can be simplified the thermal accumulator

Отопление и охлаждение электромобилей можно упростить тепловым аккумулятором   It is widely known that, unlike the car with DVS, electromachines extremely difficult are given salon heating in the winter. Certainly, speech not about low-potential heat; such car spends the electric energy reserved in and without those to not too capacious battery. In a word, if in the passport of your Nissan Leaf "150 km" are written any, in a minus twenty they quite can shrivel literally to one hundred.

  Evelyn Wong (Evelyn Wang), the professor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA), heads works on creation of alternative system of heating, and at the same time and car conditioning. What can he offer "green" motorists?

Nissan Leaf в американских зимних тестах пробегал на 37,5% меньше, чем летом. (Фото Nissan.)

Nissan Leaf in the American winter tests ran 37,5% less, than in the summer. (Nissan photo. )

   In its system water is injected into the container of low pressure, evaporates and thus absorbs heat. Then water vapor contacts to absorbent — a hydrophilic material with microscopic a time (will approach and the modified zeolite). On absorbent water leaves the container, supporting in it the low pressure necessary for effective work of system. Then the new portion of water moves in the container — and so on.

   Heat received at absorption of water, can be disseminated in the atmosphere through a radiator ("a conditioner mode") or is used for salon heating if it is a question of a cold season. From the description it is visible that work of system demands much less electricity, than is usually spent in the electric car for the conditioner or heating system on TENs. In total that it is necessary — to support not too powerful pumps.

   Certainly, the success isn't given by gift: in fact, before us the heataccumulator as when absorbent will save up enough water, the system will rise. To extract the water reused in a cycle, the material should be heated to 200 °C then this "the thermal accumulator" on a water basis is again efficient within several hours (everything depends on an amount of water and absorbent).

   Where to take energy for a recharge of "the thermal accumulator"? In principle, the electric heater is capable of this feat, but "there is a set of other possible sources of heat — will tell, warmly from a solar water heater therefore it is possible to do without electricity". The benefit water evaporation from absorbent lasts not more long than four hours that is close to time of a recharge of accumulators of modern electric cars. Soon one of options of this system while tested in laboratory, it will be checked on Ford Focus EV.

Модель Ford Focus EV, на одной из которых вскоре начнутся испытания новой системы охлаждения и отопления салона (фото Ford).

The Ford Focus EV model, on one of which tests of the new cooling system and salon heating (Ford photo) will soon begin.

   That to a solar water heater, it is difficult to call this "green" idea too practical. Really electrogas stations should hold also solar water heaters, on one on each electric car? However, not everything is so bad: even if to drain absorbent the electric heater (not at a driving, of course, and at night, at recharge), range, and without that often not exceeding 160 km, in cold time remains normal, instead of will fall to a third because of work of system of heating.

   And here for hybrids the idea looks better — if, of course, to modify temperature of heating of absorbent. At a hybrid car low-potential heat during DVS work all the same arises sooner or later, and it can quite be used for water evaporation from absorbent. Respectively, in such scheme power selection at the motor for the cooling system is excluded — so, the general fuel consumption is lower also.

Sunday, April 21, 2013

Memory can be strengthened molecular and cellular training schemes

Память можно укрепить молекулярно-клеточными обучающими схемами    Not so long ago researchers from the Texas university in Houston (USA) found out that neurons remember information better if to adhere to a certain schedule of training incentives. Storing, as we know, depends on synthesis of certain proteins in nervous cages. In this case for the second incentive it is possible to pick up such time when the new wave of activation of genes will enter, so to speak, in a resonance with a wave from the previous incentive and will improve storing. Differently, will improve a "zapominatelny" proteinaceous profile in a cage. On the basis of data on gene and proteinaceous dynamics scientists constructed mathematical model which allowed to develop "the schedule of lessons" for neurons.
Нейробиолог Джон Бирн с коллегами и морским зайцем (фото The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston).

Neurobiologist John Byrne with colleagues and a sea hare (a photo of The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston).

    In a new series of experiments the same scientific group under the leadership of John Byrne tried to promote by means of such obuchayushche-stimulating technique slightly further and to prevent memory impairment. As well as in the previous work, experiment was made with cages of a mollusk of Aplysia californica (he is a sea hare), which nervous system thanks to the large and multi-colored neurons often acts as model object in neurobiological researches.

   To simulate memory impairment, culture of nervous cages processed the substance weakening contacts between neurons. It is known that storing depends on exchange of information between nervous cages therefore durability of memory, especially long-term, is defined by firmness of interneural connections. To simulate training, other substance which raised neurons was used. "Training sessions" with culture of cages were carried out according to the schemes calculated by means of the mathematical program on the basis of the schedule of molecular and biochemical processes in neurons. Different schemes provided different and irregular intervals between incentives, from 5 to 50 minutes.

   As researchers write to "educational schemes" to Journal of Neuroscience, after five "training sessions", carried out on such, connection force between neurons was restored. And it is worth emphasizing once again that scientists used not medicine, and simply irritating substance. That is systematic exercises in itself are capable to have beneficial impact on memory, returning to neurons the former force of contact. The schemes created by authors of work, not simply help memory, but also treat her for damages.

   Whether it is possible to use this method at disorders of memory at the person? His authors consider that is possible, but it is necessary to modify technology according to human neurochemical features. After all the sense consists not so much in in itself intellectual exercises, how many in their schedule, distribution in time. And to make such schedule effective for the person, it is necessary that it corresponded to waves of molecular and genetic activity in our neurons.

The largest power plant using a temperature gradient of sea water, will appear in China

Крупнейшая электростанция, использующая температурный градиент морской воды, появится в Китае     The Energy of a Temperature Gradient of Sea Water (ETGSW) — potentially the most powerful source of the electric power. Water of oceans at a depth even in the equatorial zones is very cool (generally 5–10 °C) while in blankets often happens quite warm (more than 25 °C). Such difference of temperatures arises literally on hundred meters of difference of depths and can be quite used for electrogeneration. By calculations, even extraction of 5% of energy of the Sun absorbed by oceans and the leader to a difference of temperatures in their layers, is capable to provide 10 000 GW of generating capacities — that is 80 trillion kW • h in a year that four times exceeds present world electrogeneration.
У берегов Хайнаня разница температур у поверхности и на глубине превышает 22 °С. (Здесь и ниже иллюстрации Lockheed Martin.)

At coast of Hainan the difference of temperatures at a surface and at a depth exceeds 22 °C. (Here and lower than the illustration Lockheed Martin. )

   But for realization of such system it is necessary to overcome a number of difficulties because of which the capacity of power plants on ETGMV yet doesn't exceed tens kilowatts. The concept of the Lockheed Martin company consists in the following: first, it is necessary to choose correctly the area of work of station — to achieve the maximum difference of temperature of superficial and deep layers; secondly, to use the optimum scheme on energy consumption. In the system offered by Lockheed Martin, ammonia in the heat exchanger evaporates in warm blankets; the evaporated gas twists the turbine and arrives in the lower part of the heat exchanger, being cooled with deep water and turning into liquid, then reused for energy generation. Parasitic losses on pumping of ammonia are equal here about 40% from received pure generation, and cost, by optimistical estimates of the company, there can be in the area only 7 cents for kilowatt-hour.

  Such scheme is ideally suited for coastal areas and especially islands where energy generation often depends on imported fuel, and therefore is extremely expensive. So, cost on the Hawaiian Islands is equal (January, 2013) 37,86 cents for kW • h for households and 31,69 cents for industrial enterprises that, undoubtedly, force to rejoice small number of the last in this state of the USA. For comparison: these prices are equal in continental States pity 11,47 and 6,45 cents for kW • h respectively.
Офшорная электростанция на ЭГТМВ принципиально довольно проста, но крупных станций такого типа пока никто не строил, и Lockheed Martin здесь первопроходец.

The offshore power plant on EGTMV is essentially enough simple, but while nobody built large stations of this kind, and Lockheed Martin here the pioneer.

  For this reason in 2009 of Lockheed Martin was going to begin construction on Hawaii power plants on ETGMV on new technology (own development). But Naval Forces of the USA which partially financed the project, considered too risky to be put for themselves in it therefore on April 13, 2013 the company signed the corresponding memorandum of understanding with the Chinese Reignwood Group, planning to build up coastal areas of the island of Hainan.

   Capacity of pilot station is equal 10 MWt, however, if experience is successful, it will be increased to 100 MWt. Unlike wind or solar energy, such installation is capable to work in full and identical force day and night, and each such station will be able to give enough energy to replace 1,3 million barrels of oil and to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by half a million tons per year.

Saturday, April 20, 2013

Life in the Universe arose even long before emergence of Earth

Жизнь во Вселенной зародилась еще задолго до появления Земли    The new research executed by geneticist Alexey Sharovym together with biologist-theorist Richard Gordon of National institute of health of the USA, specifies that origin of life happened about 9,8 billion years ago in other place in the Universe. At that time Earth didn't exist yet. Our planet arose about five billions years ago, according to the modern scientific version.
   Scientists proceeded mainly from this that life, accepting over time more and more difficult forms, flows according to the certain law, reminding in something Moore's law. By back in time of a thread of genetic complexity, researchers consider, it is possible to define when after all there was a life.
   In Moore's law it is said, in particular about increase in two productivities of the computer within each 18 months that promotes the exponential growth of complexity of technologies. Such events allow to argue and on opportunities of future technologies, and also to trace back in time a computer performance level up to a point when this technology appeared for the first time. So, if to apply Moore's law, for example, to the exponential growth of transistors on integrated schemes, emergence them corresponds to 1960.
     Geneticist Sharov and biologist-theorist Gordon believe that it is possible to determine the period of an origin of life by means of studying of genetic complexity through a prism of the law of Moore with return to a certain point of a temporary origin. Tracing an evolution course for the last some eras, since simple unicells and finishing more difficult types, such, for example, as fishes and mammals, scientists as a result came to a conclusion that the complexity genome far not increased each 18 months in a geometrical progression on doubling. In a way, it is accurately visible not absolutely Moore's law, however the period made each 376 million years.
    Meanwhile, the most entertaining in this regard that the complexity genome about 9,7 billion years ago, reaches zero with a margin error a plus-minus 2,5 billion years. And Earth, as we know, exists only about 4,5 billions years. Then life arose even earlier and not on Earth, researchers declare.

Scientists who hunt for a dark matter, register three promising events

Темная материя         Sensors of the scientific installation which is settling down deeply underground in Minnesota, registered three events which according to scientists are potential "signatures" of exotic particles of a mysterious dark matter. The received results have especially preliminary character in order that they could be classified as opening, nevertheless, they give to scientists some possible hints which will help with the solution of the scientific riddle facing scientists already within a decade.
     "Now it is possible to tell that we found the first hints on existence of a dark matter" - Rupek Mekhapatra (Rupak Mahapatra), the scientist-physicist from the Texas university, working within the SuperCDMS program tells, - "Actually is only the beginning of searches. Now we will need to carry out much more supervision and to involve a set of new sensors to confirm the found facts".
    If the results received by scientists, are confirmed, they will point to existence of the massive particles which are poorly interacting with world around (Weakly Interacting Particles, WIMP) which, in turn, can serve as an explanation of existence of a dark matter to which share 27 percent from everything fall that exists in the Universe. This dark matter is invisible and isn't detectable by means of any available means, it is possible to judge its existence only indirectly thanks to gravitational effects created by it. One more mysterious phenomenon is dark energy to which share 68 percent from "all real" fall. And only 5 percent remain on a share of a usual matter which can be seen and "felt" various scientific tools.
     Scientists-physicists puzzle over a riddle of a dark matter from 1930th years, billion dollars were spent for carrying out various experiments. And here only in 2008, the sensor of experiment of Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) registered three high-energy events novel hitherto the nature. Highly sensitive germanic sensors of the CDMS installation are in one of the thrown mines at a depth of 713 meters. Such depth helps to protect the scientific equipment from influence of secondary space beams in which noise the weak signature of a dark matter can get lost.
    The effects noticed by the SuperCDMS team, indicate existence of particles of WIMP, important masses energy about 8.6 billions electron-volt that approximately in nine times more masses of a proton. For the present it isn't up to the end clear, whether are the registered events statistical accident but if it so, data recording of events is something it is similar to row loss a semerok on a board of "the one-armed bandit". According to the preliminary analysis of the obtained data the probability of reliability of these data makes 99.8 percent that is very essential indicator. Nevertheless such probability has enough before to reach level of 5 sigma (99.9999 percent) after which scientific data start being considered as reliable opening.

Датчик эксперимента CDMS

      "If the physician tells that he cures an illness in 99.8 percent of cases, it will be simply tremendous event. But if such probability is mentioned concerning area of physics of high energiya and elementary particles, it can appear that all collected data don't stand also a bean" - Rupek Mekhapatra tells, - "The probability received by us assumes that during repetition of the same experiment some hundred times failure can happen once. We are going to lift this probability to one on one million".
    The scientists using highly sensitive germanic sensors, needed nearly five years to start to notice the events connected with a dark matter. And it is connected with use of germanic sensors which have the maximum sensitivity in the field of the high masses and energiya. Now already there is one more data set, received from the silicon sensors sensitive in areas of lower energiya but while these data aren't processed yet. At this time results of other experiments in the field of a dark matter indicate existence of a dark matter in lower power range, than it was expected earlier. "Now we closely will be engaged in the careful analysis of data from silicon sensors to which we paid not enough attention within the last four years" - Mekhapatra tells.
      Many scientists-physicists, including Sean M. Keroll (Sean M. Carroll) from the Californian institute of technology, aren't surprised absolutely not that data of experiment of SuperCDMS didn't lead at once to opening. For the present reliability of future opening will require confirmation of the obtained data by other experiments, AMS, LUX, Xenon1T and others. "Available data are only confirmation to that we go literally on "hot scents" of a dark matter" - Carroll in NBC News interview declared.
     Some scientists consider that the matter and a dark matter appeared as a result of the process called by a space cladogenesis which means that each usual particle has an own "dark" antipode. Therefore, detection of WIMP of particles with a various weight completely keeps within such theory. "While we still don't know, whether coincidence it, or the help, made to us the nature" - was declared by Mekhapatra.

In two planetary systems three are found at once "super lands" in habitability zones

В двух планетарных системах обнаружены сразу три «суперземли» в зонах обитаемости   Space telescope "Kepler" found two new planetary systems as a part of which in a zone of a habitability there are at once three "super lands"". And two of them on parameters are very close to actually Earth.
    In Kepler-62 system in constellation of the Lira remote from us for 1 200 light years, five planets are found: Kepler-62b, 62c, 62d, 62e and 62f. The three first — bodies of terrestrial group, but being too close to a star and rather similar to hot Mercury and Venus. Two last — Kepler-62e and Kepler-62f — rotate round the sun (the orange dwarf like K2V that is five times more dim and is one and a half times less than our star) in 122 and 247 days respectively. Kepler-62e for 61% of the continent in the diameter also rotates at internal edge of a manned zone round Kepler-62 star; Kepler-62f is only 41% larger than our house, and rotates closer to the center of a manned zone.
Как видим, лишь Kepler-62e и Kepler-62f уверенно находятся в зоне обитаемости, в то время как Kepler-69c вполне может быть чересчур жаркой для жизни земного типа. (Здесь и ниже иллюстрации NASA Ames / JPL-Caltech.)

As we see, only Kepler-62e and Kepler-62f surely are in a habitability zone while Kepler-69c can quite be too hot for life of terrestrial type. (Here and lower than the illustration NASA Ames/JPL-Caltech. )

If to compare quantity received by them on unit of a surface of radiation to terrestrial norm, for Kepler-62e the stream of radiation is equal 1,2 ± 0,2, and for 62f — 0,41 ± 0,05. Differently, before us to some extent wishful thinking sample: not all researchers are sure that the planet receiving 20% more than energy from a star, than Earth from the Sun, in general can be manned. However, there are also opposite points of view according to which even Venus in the presence of a magnetic field could support life of a terrestrial look.
The planetary system in which they are, is much more senior than ours: by estimates, it about 7 billion years that on 2,5 billion years are more, than age Solar. All theoretical models for planets of such sizes in systems of similar age specify that it not neptunopodobny bodies, and firm planets of terrestrial group.
Kepler-69 star (the spectral class G4V), being in Swan constellation in 2 700 light years from us, looks much more solntsepodobny: its diameter — 93%, and luminosity — 80% from solar.
The planet of Kepler-69b next to it has radius in 2,24 ± 0,4 terrestrial; in any case it is too hot to be manned. Well and Kepler-69c with a radius of 1,7 ± 0,3 terrestrial rotates on the removal, allowing to believe its habitability entering into a zone. However, the number of the radiation received by it is a little great: 1,91+0,43–0,56 . However because of uncertainty of a number of parameters exact value of such stream not absolutely clearly so the probability of life there remains:
(By the way, in video of NASA there is a mistake: the distance to Kepler-62 is equal not to "about 360 light years", and similar quantity a parsec, that is to 1 200 light years. )
Alas, with a mass of above-mentioned planets of clarity it is less: they are too small that their gravitation had considerable impact on parental stars so while neither we can't find out the weight, nor density.

    Nevertheless the group of scientists under the leadership of Lisa Kaltenegger (Lisa Kaltenegger) from Institute of astronomy of Society of a name of Max Planck (Germany) has some assumptions of specifics of structure and a surface of two of three worlds — Kepler-62e and Kepler-62f. "These planets aren't similar on anything in our system. They are covered with boundless oceans — the Mrs. Kaltenegger is sure. — There can be a life, but whether it can have the technological base similar to ours? Life in these worlds has to be underwater, with lack of easy access to metals, electricity or fire necessary for development of metallurgy. Nevertheless it is the fine blue planets rotating round an orange star, and, probably, the life ingenuity in achievement of a technological stage of development still will surprise us".
    What forces the German scientists to assume, what in Kepler-62 system two Solarises are open? Astronomers carried out modeling of parameters of both planets on the basis of the assumption of the chemical composition similar to the terrestrial. At available data on number of the radiation received by these planets at all possible values of gravitation left that the sheet of water for such bodies on thickness has to be very considerable, to 80–150 km. However, it doesn't mean that at 62f there is no firm surface: this world is received by less heat, than Earth, and therefore can quite have the considerable sizes constant ice caps that is compatible to a picture of the life developing not only in the sea, but also on a firm surface.

Dark lightnings generate an anti-matter and gamma radiation in Earth atmosphere

Тёмные молнии порождают антиматерию и гамма-излучение в атмосфере Земли      The group of scientists under the leadership of physicist Joseph Duayer (Joseph Dwyer) from Florida institute of technology (USA) carried out modeling of processes of formation of gamma flashes in Earth atmosphere — puzzles lasting 0,2-3,5 ms with energy to 20 MEV which are often resulting in temporary incapacity of sensors of satellites on low Earth orbit.

Вопреки ожиданиям, часть античастиц, регистрируемых на орбите Земли, приходит не от далёких чёрных дыр, а, напротив, снизу, из земной атмосферы. Пока лишь модель Дуайера успешно объясняет это. (Иллюстрация NASA.)

Contrary to expectations, the part of the antiparticles registered in an orbit of Earth, comes not from far black holes, and, on the contrary, from below, from the terrestrial atmosphere. While only Duayer's model successfully explains it. (Illustration NASA. )

    According to the created model, lightnings are responsible for this phenomenon, however, quite unusual — giving very little visible radiation which is almost imperceptible in a cloud layer.
     Normal lightnings are characterized by the slow electrons bearing an electric charge either on the earth, or in other part of a cloud. Contrary to it, dark lightnings as they are called by researchers, are connected with high-speed electrons (almost with light speeds) which at collision with molecules of gases of air generate gamma beams. And those generate electrons and their contrast — positrons, the antiparticles of the electron which have been already found by space offices of NASA. Positrons, by itself, face other molecules of air and form even more gamma beams. And so on — until then while process won't fade:
    So, before us something like the natural accelerator with positive feedback. Thanks to such outstanding parameters dark lightnings have to even quicker usual reduce tension in that part of a cloud where arise as transfer an electric charge more effectively. In this regard there are they less often than usual lightnings — according to modern data, thousands (or several thousand) aren't more often than once a year.
    Gamma radiation how strongly generated by such processes? Question not idle because radiation arises at heights chosen by airliners. So, on 12 200 m of a dose of radiation from dark lightnings are comparable with 10 x-ray pictures of a thorax or a dose which the person receives for a year from a natural background and products (bananas and so forth), radioactive isotopes containing small doses.
    However gamma radiation from dark lightnings is capable to reach a maximum at the height of 4 900 m where it can be about 10 times more powerful and equal to a dose received by us at the general x-ray tomography of all organism or from a natural background, but in 10 years of life. As the majority of flights of civil aviation pass on 9–12 km, for one flight planes on the average visit this most dangerous zone twice.
    Nevertheless, according to calculations, only in rare instances people, without guessing it, can be subject to considerable radiation from dark lightnings, Joseph Duayer notices, specifying that doses, apparently, never reach really dangerous values. That is radiation from dark lightnings — it not of what it is necessary to be afraid. At the same time while remains not clear as far as the neutrons which have been beaten out from an airliner by such gamma radiation, can be dangerous to onboard electronics of a vessel.
   Authors of work planned experimental search of the such phenomena for the near future in the atmosphere.

Engineers learned to store microwaves

Схема работы хранилища для микроволн. А - режим пропускания излучения, B - режим хранения    Engineers from Kyoto university developed and assembled the first device which is capable to store and reserve electromagnetic radiation with preservation of its phase properties. The description of "trap" is laid out in the form of a pre-print in archive of Kornelsky university, and its short structure describes the blog Technology Review.

    The device is supplied with two condensers of variable capacity. At setup of condensers for one length of a wave all microwave radiation which gets to it, is absorbed and "archived". If to change the capacity of condensers, earlier absorbed waves leave the storage, thus all their phase properties remain former.

    Earlier to accumulate electromagnetic radiations it was possible when using, for example, atoms of rubidium and caesium which have a set of the raised power levels. The last were used for storage of energy of photons, and reradiation was stimulated with a special impulse. Thus it is impossible to call such atoms full-fledged storage of waves as their "razarkhivirovaniye" always leads to full loss of a phase of photons.

   The new device is developed on technology of metamaterials. Metamaterials call the artificial materials which properties depend first of all on their structure, instead of on a chemical composition. They can be used, for light curvature for the purpose of creation of unusual lenses or so-called invisible raincoats. The scale of elements in such materials has to be less than length of a wave of the radiation passing through them. The principles of creation of metamaterials also apply to management of heat or seismic waves.

Scientists, using a tiny sound lasso, ensnared microscopic objects

Звуковое лассо     Vortex educations can be different, from huge and deadly tornadoes to small and safe whirlwinds which can't be seen unaided by a look. And if from big whirlwinds and a tornado it is necessary to escape, tiny whirlwinds it is possible to force to work for advantage of science. From such tiny whirlwind created by means of ultrasonic waves, scientists created some kind of sound lasso, a trap in which it is possible to catch and by means of which it is possible to move different microscopic objects.
      In article published in the Applied Physics Letters online edition, researchers from department of mechanical engineering of Bristol university and university of medical sciences and technologies of Dundee institute showed that various tiny particles, such as living cells and various nanoparticles can be ensnared a sound whirlwind. This whirlwind operating as a sound lasso, it is possible to operate rather simply, slowly and carefully moving the caught microscopic particles. Such technology can be used for the solution of rather wide range of tasks, such, as "assembly" of artificial fabrics from a set of separate cages, assembly of difficult nanomaterials and metamaterials.
    At the heart of the developed technology the acoustic whirlwinds described by so-called mathematical functions of Bessel lie. These functions define configuration and dynamics of a sound lasso, a vector of an impulse of its linear and rotary moment which can force the captured objects to rotate or move in the necessary direction.

Пойманные в ловушку частицы

     The sound lasso represents the round device as a part of which there are 16 sources of ultrasound, each of which is capable to reproduce the sound fluctuations extending in the certain direction and having own frequency, amplitude and phase shift. The combination of the sound waves radiated by all sources, leads to creation in the operational volume of the device of the vortex sound fluctuations having in advance calculated characteristics. Areas of minima of these fluctuations are actually a trap, and movements of fronts of pressure of a sound wave forces the caught particles to move in the necessary direction.
     Bruce Drinkuoter (Bruce Drinkwater), the professor in the field of ultrasonic technologies of department of mechanical engineering of Bristol university, tells: "Our researches showed that by means of a whirlwind of an ultrasonic lasso we can take and move to the right place of a particle on any trajectory. But the most interesting is that our method is absolutely contactless, safe and it perfectly is suitable for manipulation with such things, as the cages considered under a microscope. With small modifications the technology developed by us can become part of product production lines on which elements of human fabrics and artificial organs" will be made.

Physicists assumes that on a collider one more type of a boson of Higgs was found

Столкновение частиц в коллайдере    That opening of a boson of Higgs already took place doesn't cause already in anybody doubt. But scientists-physicists still aren't sure of that, particle how found by them or particles meet their expectations. At the meeting which has taken place on Saturday of the American physical society of physics again were engaged in discussion of the found boson of Higgs, a particle which gives weight to other particles. And at the main subject of discussion there was a pronounced thought that recent opening of a boson of Higgs is big disappointment because it didn't bring them any surprises. Nevertheless, the majority of scientists feed big hope to find in the near future Higgs's bosons of other types, disappearing in the same power area in which there is found "a particle of God".
   "Now there is a set of theoretical models in which more difficult structure of area in which is is defined or there are Higgs's bosons" - Marcus Klyyut (Markus Klute), the scientist-physicist from Massachusetts Institute of Technology tells, - "Some of these theories allow possibility of existence of five or more types of a boson of Higgs, differing from each other on weight".
   In March of physics at last finally confirmed that the particle found on the biggest in the world the accelerator of particles, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), actually is Higgs's boson. This particle has weight, by 126 times surpassing mass of a proton that completely corresponds to Standard model, the main modern theory of physics of elementary particles. According to this model Higgs's boson is connected with Higgs's field, a power field which penetrates space and "fills" other particles with weight.
   Detection of a boson of Higgs who is keeping within a framework of theories, became something like disappointment for scientists-physicists who hoped to find something that would turn head over heels all physical theories. "In November I was suppressed by that fact that the made discovery perfectly fits into a framework of modern theories" - Marcus Klyyut tells, - "This condition is called as "a post-opening depression"".
   But researchers hope that in the near future they should learn more many about Higgs's boson, including and, whether the found boson is unique. The main hope of scientists is the Large Hadron Collider which after reconstruction has to become operational in 2015 and to come to the maximum capacity that will allow scientists to investigate higher power ranges.
   Hints on the forthcoming opening already now can be found in an array of collected scientific information. In December, 2012 in the data collected by one of experiments the TANK the second splash indicating possibility of existence of one more type of a boson of Higgs, differing from found by weight was found. However, this additional splash was registered only by the equipment of one experiment, other scientific devices installed on a collider, didn't register and didn't confirm anomaly existence.
   "Thanks to that the question "whether Higgs's found boson is "standard" or not", remains open, we hope for continuation of researches in this direction" - Michael Peskin, the physicist from National laboratory of linear SLAC accelerators of Stendfordsky university tells, - "And we will continue our scientific "game" later this decade".
   After the collider will earn by one of scientific theories which are going to check experimentally учены again and the accuracy of carried-out measurements will rise several times, the theory of "supersymmetry" which defines is that each of particles has an imperceptible twin particle which it is difficult, but it is possible "to catch". These twin particles can serve as an explanation of existence of a mysterious dark matter to which share the most part of a matter in the Universe falls.
  "Now scientists-physicists can explain distinctly only 4 percent of of what the Universe" consists - Thomas Koffas (Thomas Koffas), the scientist-physicist from Karleton's (Carleton University) university tells, Canada, - "Than the remained 96 percent are, we have no the slightest concept, but we are going to find out it in the near future".

It is declared registration of particles of a dark matter

    CDMS collaboration (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search, "Cryogenic search of a dark matter") declared registration of traces of a dark matter with probability three sigma, that is 99,81%. Certainly, sure detection of a dark matter in shape wimps which search conducts CDMS, requires five sigma as it was with Higgs's boson, however and the result in 99,81% deserves some attention.
Так выглядят кремниевые детекторы, применявшиеся в эксперименте CDMS-II. (Здесь и ниже иллюстрации Fermilab.)

So the silicon detectors applied in experiment of CDMS-II look. (Here and lower than the illustration Fermilab. )

    Though the word "Wimp" (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle) means poorly interacting massive particle, some opportunities for registration of its collision with a usual matter nevertheless are. If dispersion section wimps on an atomic nucleus very much, is possible their direct detection by means of the semiconductor germanic and silicon detectors being underground (for shielding from space beams which would give a lot of noise) and cooled to 0,04 K.
     After experiments on search by means of the germanic detectors which were more sensitive in the range over 15 GEV, physicists was engaged in check below this range. The silicon detectors worse working above the called threshold and were for this purpose used it is better — to 15 GEV. Following the results of supervision with silicon detectors (CDMS-II) it was succeeded to register traces of three collisions vimps with kernels of usual atoms. Expected quantity of such events in case they would be noise, is equal 0,7.
     Though participants of experiment believe that it and is long-awaited wimp, a basic particle of a dark matter, other points of view express also. Data of CDMS-II on these events assume weight wimp in 8,6 GEV — and it considerable easier particle, than it was expected physical community. Let's tell, data of the magnetic alpha spectrometer established on ISS, quite recently, it seems, spoke well for detection wimps with a weight around 250 GEV that suited all from the theoretical point of view though the statistical importance of results and was insufficient.

Вимп, подобный найденному, намного легче ожиданий большинства физиков и предварительных результатов магнитного альфа-спектрометра.

 Wimp similar found, is much easier than expectations of the majority of physicists and preliminary results of a magnetic alpha spectrometer.

     Besides long time was claimed that weight wimp has to be at least in tens times more masses of a proton, and in such portrait of 8,6 GEV "does not lay down" because here doesn't smell even as tenfold excess on weight.
   On the other hand, information received in other experiment — CoGeNT, testifies to weight wimp around 7–11 GEV — as well as some interpretations of the gamma radiation received by a space gamma telescope of "Fermi" from the center of our Galaxy.

Friday, April 19, 2013

Germany of one-nuclear thickness will be able to replace in the future silicon in semiconductors and electronics

Кристалл германия      When speech comes about a material having thickness in only one atom and having huge prospects for application in semiconductors and electronics, the first that occurs, the decanter is. But speech now will go not about the countess, and about the new material known as german which was created by scientists-chemists from Ohio university (Ohio State University). Germanan, as well as a decanter, has thickness in one atom, only its crystal lattice consists not of atoms of carbon, and atoms Germany. The whole set of exclusive properties of a new material does him by very perspective candidate for silicon replacement in semiconductor devices of the future.
Researchers and engineers used germaniye for creation of the first experimental chips more than 60 years ago, but later this material yielded the position to silicon, as to more widespread material, simpler in practical application. However, remarkable electric and semiconductor properties Germany force scientists again and again to pay the attention to this material. "The majority of people considers a decanter as the most perspective material for future electronics" - Joshua Goldberger (Joshua Goldberger), the scientist-chemist from Ohio university tells, - "But silicon and germaniye are materials of the present, their properties are perfectly studied for last 60 years. It is necessary to develop only new forms of these materials and new technologies that will allow to use further these materials in electronic industry, instead of to pass to the new materials which properties are still studied not up to the end".

Получение германана

   Turned out one-nuclear germaniye carries out electrons ten times faster, than silicon, and five times quicker, than usual germaniye. It means that the conductor from such Germany, located on a chip crystal, will be able to pass through itself a bigger electric current. Germany is more chemically steady than silicon, it isn't oxidized at contact with air or water. In addition, it absorbs light that means big prospect of this material for use in solar batteries better.
    Scientists though managed to receive earlier german, but it were very small quantities which are obviously insufficient for use of such material in mass production. And to receive german in large numbers Goldberger and his team developed a unique method.

Свойства германана

    In usual conditions of germaniye has a form of multilayered crystals. Layers, atom one thick, connect with each other and each layer has very changeable structure. To researchers Germany between which germanic layers atoms of calcium were located was necessary to grow up special crystals. Subsequently calcium was dissolved and removed by means of water, having left empty chemical bonds Germany. These communications then contacted atoms of hydrogen, having made structure of layers Germany is much stabler and stronger that allowed to separate their intact from the general crystal.
   Now Goldberger's group plans carrying out extensive researches of all properties of the received material, Germany of one-nuclear thickness. And only after that it will be possible to start thinking of practical application german in electronic industry.
   Materials about carried out by Goldberger and his team researches and their results were published in the last issue of the ACS Nano magazine.

How to turn cellulose into starch

Как превратить целлюлозу в крахмал    By 2050th year human population, by some estimates, will reach 9 billions. Even if to leave behind reasoning brackets on a subject "That becomes with environment? ", from one question to wave away it won't turn out in any way. How to feed this crowd?

Целлюлозные волокна бумажного полотенца под электронным микроскопом (фото Dennis Kunkel Microscopy).

Cellulose fibers of a paper towel under an electronic microscope (Dennis Kunkel Microscopy photo).

    Researchers from Virginsky polytechnical institute (USA), apparently, found a way of the solution of this problem. The group of scientists under the leadership of Percival Cheung managed to turn cellulose into starch, is more exact — in one of its polysaccharides under the name amylase.
    The author of work created an artificial biochemical chain which in detail describe in the PNAS magazine. Among the used enzymes are called endoglukonaza, cellobiogidroliza, various fosforilaza etc. All of them were received from bacteria, mushrooms and plants, it was necessary to arrange only them in the correct order and to adjust reaction conditions. As both cellulose, and starch represent glucose polymers, sense of all procedure in changing an arrangement of communications between monomers.
    About a third of raw materials turned into the starch-amilozu, remained was hydrolyzed to glucose which could be used for receiving ethanol by means of yeast. In fact, the created fermentativny chain allows to dispose of agricultural vegetable resources more economically (or it is perhaps more eco-friendly). For example, green parts of cereal cultures which go on a forage to cattle, it is possible to use both in the food industry, and for receiving biofuel. Besides, it is possible to transform to starch and that cellulose from which paper is put that adds to a method of ecological "points".
    The method of transformation of cellulose in starch still demands completion that it could be used in the industry, however its advantages already are now clear: he doesn't demand neither any additional chemical reagents, nor especially difficult equipment, is besides safe for environment in view of lack of toxic waste.

Whether it is possible to transfer information, without exchanging particles?

Можно ли передавать информацию, не обмениваясь частицами?    The group of scientists of Saudi Arabia and the USA under the leadership of Hatim Salikh (Hatim Salih) from the Scientific and technical small town of a name of king Abdoul-Aziz ibn Saod claims that developed an information transfer method between a source and the recipient without an exchange of any physical particles.
    "Well here, as usual, sensational nature for didn't regret even the school program... " — the reader will think and will be to some extent right. But only to extremely small degree.
    In heart of the designed device — a set of beam splitters — devices from prisms and mirrors (simplifying a little) with very high reflecting ability. When one party of an information channel (Alice) sends a photon through the first beam splitter, and the second (Bob) has the detector directly behind this device, Bob can either activate the detector, or not activate it. While the detector is switched off, the photon exists in superposition of simultaneous conditions, in one of which it will be reflected, and in other — is passed through a beam splitter that will allow it to interfere most with itself after reflection in two correctly located mirrors.
    But when Bob detector is switched on, the situation changes: wave function of a photon is compelled коллапсировать, and the particle has to choose what of two conditions should be "preferred".

Схема обмена информацией без частиц (иллюстрация Hatim Salih et al.).

The scheme of exchange of information without particles (the illustration Hatim Salih et al. ) .

    The second beam splitter is located where both potential routes of a photon are crossed, and behind this beam splitter Bob too has a detector. When concerning the detector and a beam splitter two more mirrors are correctly located, the configuration of this element as a whole starts repeating the first that leads to emergence of a series of "loops" in the form of a rhombus.
    As a result the quantum effect of Zenon according to which a certain metastable condition will break up the later starts working, than more often it will measure by means of devices. In this case Bob can tell to Alice, whether all his detectors, without need to pass at least one photon among themselves and Alice are switched on. After all if all detectors work, in game Zenon's quantum effect, and wave function of a photon constantly коллапсирует enters the same condition of high probability — reflected, forcing a photon to give out a signal on one of two output detectors on Alice's party. Well and if Bob all detectors are switched off, the repeated interference of wave function with by itself leads to activation of the second of Alice's two detectors.
   Certainly, the described scheme isn't ideal. If Bob includes only one of the remote detectors being in the following elements of system, wave function of a photon will reach a condition when it, most likely, will manage to be registered on that part of installation that is under Bob control, so, the goal — exchange of information without a photon parcel — won't be reached.
    To remove this problem, researchers used that they call "Zenon's chain quantum effect". The idea of a trick in that secondary contours of system a beam splitter — the detector dumped wave function at the end of each big contour so that probability of detection of a photon on Bob party though didn't disappear, but never reached too great values.
    As scientists believe, the infinite number of primary and secondary contours in such system has to guarantee that the photon will always force to work the correct detector on Alice's party and never will finish the way in one of Bob detectors that will mean absolutely free communication from particles between Alice and Bob.

Иллюстрация John Richardson.