Tuesday, May 7, 2013

DARPA was succeeded to create the tiny thermal imager

DARPA удалось создать миниатюрный тепловизор  The defensive scientific agency DARPA declared a successful conclusion of work on creation of the tiny thermal imager which is very necessary to military. Now infrared devices of supervision with high can be made permissions in dimensions of ordinary devices of night vision and even less.

   The defensive contractor, the DRS Technologies company, I developed the infrared camera with pixels only five microns in size or five million shares of meter. It is comparable with a size of pixel of a camera of the ordinary smartphone and much less, than pixels on matrixes of modern thermal imagers. As at identical permission the new IK-sensor is 6 times less, in production it will be 36 times cheaper.

  Present thermal imagers or are very bulky and are established only on heavy machinery, or have the low permission (about 320х240 pixels) that it isn't enough for military use, for example from BPLA board. Today individual thermovision devices of supervision which will be rather cheap and compact that it was possible to equip with them each soldier are necessary.

DARPA удалось создать миниатюрный тепловизор

The new tiny thermal imager developed in DRS Technologies by request of DARPA. If such products put on a stream, infantrymen will receive for the first time wearable points thermal imagers

    Thermovision points will give huge advantage in fight as they provide detection of the heatcontrast purposes (for example the person against the district) even in the conditions of smoke, behind many easy shelters, under any conditions of illumination, during snow and a rain. Soldiers with thermal imagers can act surely even in the conditions of a continuous smoke hindrance whereas the opponent without similar devices will be helpless.

   Still it wasn't possible to reduce the size of pixels of the IK-matrix as at pixel reduction it becomes too susceptible to hindrances: "garbage" photons "hammer" the most part of pixel therefore the image is filled in with gray noise of hindrances.

   In DARPA don't explain, how it was succeeded to solve this problem, only emphasize that the sizes of pixels, instead of their quantity on a matrix are reduced. All technical details of technology concerning a ratio a signal noise while remain in a secret, but in DARPA say that the compact thermal imager gives the same qualitative picture, as well as larger analogs.

How considerably to accelerate a wireless network

   Scientists developed a new chip, the amplifier of power which will allow to increase the speed of the wireless Internet at 20-30 time.

Как радикально ускорить беспроводную сеть  The new chip was developed by the associate professor of electrical equipment Harish Krishnasvami from Columbia Engineering. It managed to collect the nanodimensional amplifier of millimetric waves on the basis of widespread CMOS technology. Amplifiers of power are applied in communication technologies and sensors to increase of a power level of a signal and providing a reliable communication at long distances.

   Amplifiers of power are used practically in all electronics: from phones and computers to up-to-date systems of satellite communication. However miniaturization and simultaneous accumulation of power of amplifiers faces a problem: nanodimensional CMOS schemes can't develop a large amount of energy at high frequencies. It is connected with that transistors become less and don't maintain a high voltage - they are suitable for speed, instead of for power more. At the same time to perspective communication systems, with a high capacity and range of action, are required both speed, and high capacity.

Как радикально ускорить беспроводную сеть

The new amplifier on the basis of nanodimensional CMOS transistors will allow to create high-performance wireless computer networks with big range of communication

  Harish Krishnasvami thought up a way to use some nanodimensional carefully synchronized CMOS transistors which can generate near 1Vt capacities on millimetric waves that in 5 times more capacities of modern amplifiers. New amplifiers are made by means of laying of nanodimensional CMOS chips at each other so that they worked under the big tension without speed loss. When using four 45-nanometer CMOS - transistors in the amplifier of power and combination of eight such amplifiers on one chip, it is possible to reach output power in 0,5 W with a frequency of 45 gigahertzes.

    The new amplifier can provide for the first time extremely high capacity of communication at long distances. For example on the basis of the new chip Wi-Fi can create city a network with a speed of data transmission up to 10 gigabit per second.

   This research was financed including by defensive scientific agency DARPA which is interested in creation of powerful distant communication systems with a high capacity.

Artificial 'clever skin' allows to feel a touch

Scientists made break in the field of tactile sense imitation.

Искусственная 'умная кожа' позволяет чувствовать прикосновение   The team from the USA and China created the experimental device which is capable to determine pressure in the same range, as finger-tips of the person.

 This achievement can accelerate development of the clever imitation leather, capable to feel the events on its surface.

  These sensors described in the Science magazine, will allow to develop more perfect robots possessing tactile feeling.

  This device consists of about 8000 transistors. Each of these transistors is capable to generate independently an electric signal when is exposed to mechanical influence.

  On sensitivity level, these transistors can be compared to tips of human fingers.

  "This technology has the wide range of applications, including robotics, microelectromechanical systems, computer interfaces and other areas which affect mechanical deformation".

Wednesday, May 1, 2013

How and when it is necessary to recharge the smartphone from a fire?

Как и когда нужно подзаряжать смартфон от костра?  The startup which is engaged in development of the technology created in National laboratory of a name of Lawrence in Berkeley (USA), presented a simple and inexpensive method of providing with electricity of 2,5 billion people in the developing world.

   The Point Source Power company uses for this purpose a little heterodox decision — a solid oxide fuel element. Stop, feet, tprr-at-at! What such fuel element? And where it is going to take hydrogen or at least methane in Africa? .

   The development of a startup bearing the name VOTO, is capable to do without these types of fuel. Also can work from... charcoal, firewood or other types of a biomass, including a press of a sugar cane, cow flat cakes and other, capable to burn. Differently, the device will be able to work not only in Rwanda and at Haiti, but even in Fallout world.

Два штырька и ручка. Если предпочитаете готовить на открытом огне — стальная кастрюля без дна и с прорезями сбоку, для защиты пластиковой ручки от оплавления. (Здесь и ниже фото Point Source Power.)

Two pins and handle. If you prefer to prepare on open fire — a steel pan without a bottom and with cuts sideways, for protection of the plastic handle against an oplavleniye. (Here and lower than Point Source Power photo. )

     For achievement of 700-800 °C demanded to start work, the fuel element simply is located in fire — an oven or even the open fire covered with something like a pan with a cut. After a warming up via the handle from a fuel element it is possible to power a bulb or the mobile phone and so forth.

     Certainly, novelty indicators not too impress: only 5 V at about 500 мА, standard parameters of recharge from USB. That is even the tablet can't be loaded, and iPhone will be powered tiresomely long (at continuous inclusion of Angry Birds — eternally). But what you want from the device weight in 236 g? By the way, on the end of the handle of a fuel element there is a LED bulb luminosity in 25 lm that approximately corresponds to a bulb of an incandescence of watts on six with a quarter of. Darkly? The oil lamp isn't brighter. On the other hand, after full charging of the device (during this time the proud owner will manage to prepare two-three dishes on an oven/fire) it accumulates 4 000 мА • h at a voltage of 1,2 V, that is 4,8 W • h. And then such LED analog of the quite good paraffin stove shines till 30 o'clock — that is two and a half nights in a row, and after all you prepare obviously more often.

     By itself, miracles don't happen. Though for work on such types of "fuel" the fuel battery is made extremely steady against pollutants like sulfur and the carbon, capable easily and easy to kill the vast majority of ordinary fuel batteries, all the same time of life of development equally to 3-4 months (at regular use). But also the battery of only $7, and the handle with analog of the elementary pilot — $17 will cost. You will tell, it isn't necessary for anybody as Africans and have no such money?

    Alas, whether there are at the African steady legal earnings or not — all the same it spends it for kerosene for lighting. Meanwhile after the last 15 years of a rise in prices for fuel kerosene rose in price much, and for its liter it is simple not to find less than a dollar so for this liquid which once was the cheapest option of evening lighting in house conditions, inhabitants of developing countries give $8–12 a month. Some dollars of times a quarter on this background look quite optimistically.

Пригород столицы Кении, одной из наиболее успешных в смысле электрификации стран Чёрной Африки. В таких местах VOTO будет нарасхват, ведь других источников электричества там просто нет.

Suburb of the capital of Kenya, one of the most successful that is electrification of the countries of Black Africa. In such places of VOTO will be in great demand, after all other sources of electricity there simply aren't present.

    Except clear economic advantage of system, it is useful in ecological sense. Paraffin stoves, by estimates of recent research, annually release about 270 million tons of black coal that is more than the level of a soot made by all world navigation into the atmosphere. By itself, it seriously influences world climate: one ton of coal in the atmosphere makes the same greenhouse influence as 700 tons of carbon dioxide, and the blow by air lasts not year and not ten. And it not to mention that 90 grams of coal which are forming at burning of each kilogram of kerosene, partially settle in lungs of people using these devices: impressive contribution, taking into account carcinogenicity of this substance...

    By the way, similar products for scouts everyone there and other tourists of Point Source Power I intend to sell and in the USA, and in the long term — and in other developed and rather developed countries. However, the price promise above, than in Africa.

"The magnetic hose" transferred for the first time a magnetic field to some distance

«Магнитный шланг» впервые передал магнитное поле на некоторое расстояние   "Magnetism influence in science is limited by its seeming insuperable weakness: the magnetic field quickly weakens with removal from object — Carles Navau (Carles Navau) from Autonomous university of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) reminds us.

     Together with group of colleagues the scientist tried to change a situation: to betray magnetic fields on long distances, "the magnetic hose" was created.

Здесь и ниже иллюстрации Carles Navau et al.

Here and lower than the illustration Carles Navau et al.

    The group of Mr. Navau tells that for creation of the device the understanding of became key that the constant magnetic field can be presented as a wave with an infinite length. It means that theoretically there are such materials by means of which the magnetic field can be operated the same as metamaterials with elements less than length of a wave of light operate the last.

    Experimental "the magnetic hose", representing a round pipe from superconducting and ferromagnetic materials, apparently, coped with this task. The pipe from twenty rings that is approximately much longer than the width, would suit this task as, by calculations, would transfer to the length about 90% of a magnetic field since one end on another more. But money, alas, didn't suffice even on a pipe from two rings. In a word, physics operated with a single ring (from BiPbSrCaCuO), the filled ferromagnetic alloy from cobalt and iron. Unfortunately, and here they were waited by difficulties: the ring from an expensive material appeared with a crack in the middle, from where the magnetic field "followed" outside, without reaching the opposite end...

    And nevertheless field measurements in a point of a crack showed that it has intensity in 0,8 mTl, at level of an initial field in 1,3 mTl. Differently, without "a magnetic hose" the field around a crack would be much weaker, and experiment appeared the first successful case of transfer of a magnetic field on distance.

    As scientists note, if the subsequent experiments show practical feasibility of such transfer (yes on bigger distance), it will be possible to speak about use of this mechanism for creation and control of elements of quantum computers.

Friday, April 26, 2013

ReRAM-memory, appears, also the accumulator

ReRAM-память, оказывается, ещё и аккумулятор   In random access memory for storage of information electrons which it is much less actually than atoms are used. Therefore to supervise their location in a cell it is difficult and to avoid dispersion of electrons (and losses of written-down information), the cell should be surrounded thick to nanomeasures with an insulator layer.

Стандартная ячейка ReRAM, одновременно являющаяся микроаккумулятором (здесь и ниже иллюстрация I.Valov et al.).

Standard cell of ReRAM which is at the same time the microaccumulator (here and lower illustration I.Valov et al. ) .

    Therefore many developers turn looks towards ReRAM (resistive memory with direct access), based on ions — usually one-nuclear particles which received or have lost any quantity of electrons. In such system electrons are already caught by ions, and in a thick insulator there is no need. At the same time without a layer of the insulator consisting of a set of atoms, the sizes of system are defined generally by parameters of an ion which is dimensionally close to single atom.

   For control of such ion in prototypes of memory two electrodes (we will tell, from silver and platinum) are used. Thus, the scheme starts bearing a faint resemblance to banal lithium - the ion accumulator in which for deduction of electrons ions too are used.

  Scientists under the leadership of Ilya Valov from Akhen's (Germany) Rhine and Westphalian technical university became interested in this similarity. For confirmation of ability of elements of new memory to play a role of microaccumulators researchers analysed the most modern ReRAM-samples of various producers. "Looking back back, it is possible to tell that presence of tension peculiar to accumulators, at ReRAM is axiomatic. But during nine-months consideration of work [before its publication in the magazine] we had to make huge efforts on an overpersuasion of colleagues". And it is clear, Mr. Valov adds, after all the voltage of ReRAM-cells can have three different basic mechanisms of emergence, and accurate fixing of comparative importance of each of them wasn't simple business.

   Opening means that the theoretical base used for the analysis of ReRAM, became outdated. It understood as set of memristor — the passive elements, capable to change the resistance depending on a charge proceeding through them. But, as showed research, in fact, the ReRAM elements are active and have own charge so mathematical ways for the description of work of these components are wrong.

Три сценария возникновения напряжения в ReRAM-элементе. Обратите внимание, в случае формирования нанонити накопления заряда не будет —  из-за короткого замыкания.

Three scenarios of emergence of tension in a ReRAM-element. Pay attention, in case of formation of a nanothread of accumulation of a charge won't be — because of short circuit.

    However, practice specified long ago that with our understanding of it like memory something not so. Inexplicable there was a long-term drift of parameters of separate cells of ReRAM. Really, now, when we understood that they can accumulate a charge, it becomes obvious that during the long work without this factor of property of ions in ReRAM are simply obliged to undergo changes.

   Therefore it is possible not only to overcome this problem, but also to create absolutely new types of electronics in which the power supply and non-volatile memory will be integrated into one chip.

Tuesday, April 23, 2013

Heating and cooling of electric cars can be simplified the thermal accumulator

Отопление и охлаждение электромобилей можно упростить тепловым аккумулятором   It is widely known that, unlike the car with DVS, electromachines extremely difficult are given salon heating in the winter. Certainly, speech not about low-potential heat; such car spends the electric energy reserved in and without those to not too capacious battery. In a word, if in the passport of your Nissan Leaf "150 km" are written any, in a minus twenty they quite can shrivel literally to one hundred.

  Evelyn Wong (Evelyn Wang), the professor of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USA), heads works on creation of alternative system of heating, and at the same time and car conditioning. What can he offer "green" motorists?

Nissan Leaf в американских зимних тестах пробегал на 37,5% меньше, чем летом. (Фото Nissan.)

Nissan Leaf in the American winter tests ran 37,5% less, than in the summer. (Nissan photo. )

   In its system water is injected into the container of low pressure, evaporates and thus absorbs heat. Then water vapor contacts to absorbent — a hydrophilic material with microscopic a time (will approach and the modified zeolite). On absorbent water leaves the container, supporting in it the low pressure necessary for effective work of system. Then the new portion of water moves in the container — and so on.

   Heat received at absorption of water, can be disseminated in the atmosphere through a radiator ("a conditioner mode") or is used for salon heating if it is a question of a cold season. From the description it is visible that work of system demands much less electricity, than is usually spent in the electric car for the conditioner or heating system on TENs. In total that it is necessary — to support not too powerful pumps.

   Certainly, the success isn't given by gift: in fact, before us the heataccumulator as when absorbent will save up enough water, the system will rise. To extract the water reused in a cycle, the material should be heated to 200 °C then this "the thermal accumulator" on a water basis is again efficient within several hours (everything depends on an amount of water and absorbent).

   Where to take energy for a recharge of "the thermal accumulator"? In principle, the electric heater is capable of this feat, but "there is a set of other possible sources of heat — will tell, warmly from a solar water heater therefore it is possible to do without electricity". The benefit water evaporation from absorbent lasts not more long than four hours that is close to time of a recharge of accumulators of modern electric cars. Soon one of options of this system while tested in laboratory, it will be checked on Ford Focus EV.

Модель Ford Focus EV, на одной из которых вскоре начнутся испытания новой системы охлаждения и отопления салона (фото Ford).

The Ford Focus EV model, on one of which tests of the new cooling system and salon heating (Ford photo) will soon begin.

   That to a solar water heater, it is difficult to call this "green" idea too practical. Really electrogas stations should hold also solar water heaters, on one on each electric car? However, not everything is so bad: even if to drain absorbent the electric heater (not at a driving, of course, and at night, at recharge), range, and without that often not exceeding 160 km, in cold time remains normal, instead of will fall to a third because of work of system of heating.

   And here for hybrids the idea looks better — if, of course, to modify temperature of heating of absorbent. At a hybrid car low-potential heat during DVS work all the same arises sooner or later, and it can quite be used for water evaporation from absorbent. Respectively, in such scheme power selection at the motor for the cooling system is excluded — so, the general fuel consumption is lower also.