Thursday, April 4, 2013

Cybernetics and management

  Bases of cybernetics were put by works on mathematical logic of the American mathematician Norbert Wiener, published in 1948.

 The cybernetics is a science about the general principles of management in various systems: technical, biological, social, etc. Management is the central concept of cybernetics, and it penetrates all fields of activity of the person and society.

 Often there is a confusion in the concepts "informatics" and "cybernetics". There is a disputable opinion that the informatics is one of the cybernetics directions.

 The informatics appeared thanks to development of the computer equipment, is based on it and without it is inconceivable. The cybernetics develops in itself, a system various models of management of objects, though very actively uses all achievements of the computer equipment.

 The main concept put by N. Wiener in cybernetics, is connected with development of the theory of management by difficult dynamic systems in different areas of human activity. The cybernetics exists irrespective of existence or lack of computers.

 The informatics is engaged in studying of processes of transformation and creation of new information is wider. Therefore there can be an impression about informatics as about more capacious discipline, than cybernetics. However, on the other hand, the informatics isn't engaged in the solution of the problems which haven't been connected with use of the computer equipment.

 It is possible to tell that the cybernetics and informatics differ in arrangement of accents. If in informatics properties of information and hardware-software means of its processing are important, in cybernetics is a development of concepts and creation of models of management. The informatics and cybernetics – the different sciences, which fields of activity, however, are strongly crossed.

  Management is a purposeful organization of this or that process proceeding in system.

 Management process is information process which includes collection of information, its processing and the analysis, decision-making, elaboration of operating influences and their finishing to objects of management.

 Each phase of management process proceeds in interaction with environment at any influence of hindrances.

 Through object of management pass in the basic material streams and in much smaller degree – information; at the same time through operating body pass only information streams. For this reason management process is information process, and all people occupied in the sphere of management, deal only with information.

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