Thursday, April 4, 2013

Video games

  Modern electronic devices, integrated schemes, light-emitting diodes, projectors on wild crystals, tiny switches and so forth find more and more broad application. The only limit of their use is... human imagination. Example of such unlimited variety — various video games which gained big distribution in the countries with advanced electronics.

 The integrated schemes, one of miracles of the XX century, originally intended for miniaturization of computers and for automatic equipment. The first product of broad consumption where integrated schemes — to them were used and obliged them by the fact of the existence, there were pocket calculators and a wrist electronic clock. Here application of integrated schemes naturally followed from their main features — abilities to carry out logical and arithmetic actions, and also — together with quartz generators, precisely to count time.

  It is easy to notice that the first two of these features are required from participants of board and some gamblings, such as chess, checkers and the bridge. In turn, ability is correct to estimate time or speed it is necessary at the games demanding dexterity and skill, for example, at hit in a moving target. If to add to it gamblings in a roulette or bones, it is possible to receive main types of video games let out now. Their creation became possible thanks to tiny integrated schemes which play the same role, as the schemes consisting of one thousand separate transistors, diodes and resistance. Video games represent or electronic option of the traditional predecessors, or their technical versions rather models of sports. Sometimes in from a basis absolutely new plans, such as, in any "space wars" lie.

   About ten years ago the general attention was drawn by the whole series of chess duels between computers from the United States of America and the Soviet Union. In memories of these cars the rules expressed by mathematical language of "the queen of games" as it is accepted to call chess were coded. On punched tapes and thousand microscopic memories on magnetic cores ranks of zero and units, containing data on the advantage of separate figures, classical initial combinations, castlings, shahs, etc. were written down.

  Computers analyzed all possible at present courses and specified where to move figures. It is necessary to tell that at the beginning of game at the disposal of the player — only twenty various courses. After the first course white and black the number of possible courses increases to 1444, after two courses, theoretically, the number of further movement of figures increases to two million, and after the third — to more than three billions. Through ten courses of each of players the number of possible movements on a chessboard reaches astronomical figure 169 x 1030 (unit with thirty zero). The person playing chess, takes into account only small number of courses, and the computer deprived of intuition counts everything, even the most ridiculous options. It isn't necessary to forget that the cars, capable to make operations with the lightning speed, having huge computing capacities and capacious memories participated in this tournament.

   And here in some years it appeared that thanks to improbable progress in the miniaturizations, those tasks with which the bulky computer once consulted, now easily solves the wonderful child of electronics — the microprocessor. It is a peculiar integrated scheme or, except for the case and inputs, a small plate from a semiconductor material, usually silicon. In this plate, by means of difficult operations the structure containing to twenty both more than thousand electronic elements adjacent to each other and inseparably linked between is created. Microprocessors can carry out programs very difficult and changing as required. It they also differ from other integrated schemes. And so, microprocessors together with the same tiny capacious memories also are "brain" of video games, including chess. They accept information on situation on a board, analyze and transfer the decision on the chosen course to the opponents on game.

   There are many models of the electronic chess differing with complexity of game, its duration, style, way of decision-making, size of chessmen, additional devices, well and, of course, the price. Let's present now one of the most perfect models: "Chess Chellendzher 10", let out in the USA Fideliti Elektronike's firm. It represents a wooden box of 33 x 20 x 2,8 cm. On the top cover there is a chessboard with a set of all figures on the magnetized supports. Nearby — the screen of a four-position projector of letters and the figures, being shone alarm diodes and the keyboard for communication with "Challenger". With the help a key it is possible to choose, for example, degree of difficulty of the forthcoming party, to transfer who will play white, and, thereby, to begin game, and also to tell to the electronic chess player the course. Coordinates of the corresponding cages chosen by the player or his opponent by means of the microprocessor, appear on a board about a chessboard. Short sound signals are thus distributed. When one of partners wins, the mat appears by means of the red diode. It is possible to make some courses and to increase or reduce degree of difficulty of game during party. "Challenger" can play also... with itself, i.e. white and black at the same time.

  There are such chess and electronic devices in which remembering mechanisms various options of the beginning of party therefore they can at once are coded, "without reflecting", to answer a course of the partner. It is possible to receive at them council as it is best of all to answer on... their own game. Thus, they not only indulgent opponents, but also patient teachers of chess game. However, their "condescension" is shown differently. On some models inscriptions are lit: "It won't do at all", "I usually play better", and before the announcement of a mat there is a question: "You continue game? ".

   Also electronic chess player with the sound synthesizer, able to say some phrases in four languages is let recently out. Whether the lie, all this seems improbable?

  Devices of this sort exist and for other board games and the bridge. The device for game to the bridge consists of the control panel and information system with the keyboard and projectors, the optical mikrochitatelny apparatus and a pack of playing cards. On cards, except traditional designations, a number of the narrow and wide hyphens deciphered by means of the mikrochitatelny device is put. In the device for game to the bridge use two microprocessors and two tiny memories: one, constant information (bit) with a capacity of 16800 units and the second, providing exchange of information - 8512 bits.

   As for electronic gamblings (in a roulette or bones), their internal schemes are supplied with random number generators, and also the device releasing the partner from need of a message record of game. The course of game is reflected in a light board by means of combinations of figures, letters or other signs. The random number generator is used, besides, and in the game "jaws" which was created based on the known horror film of the same name. On the small screen there are tochechka - "sailors" from the sinking ship. By means of regulators and buttons it is necessary to bring them to the coast so that not to face with unexpectedly appearing in the form of points of other color "sharks".

   At the heart of many video games sports lie: hockey, soccer, golf, tennis. The microprocessor projects on the screen a moving subject (a washer, a ball, etc.), and the person tries to beat off it and to send to gate, a hole, etc., bypassing defenders or obstacles which are erected on its way by the electronic opponent. At game in "space wars" destruction of enemy object or "rescue from newcomers from space" can be a task of the player. "auto racing" is reduced to movement in some ranks on the highway with an adjustable speed and a detour of obstacles appearing unexpectedly. Almost always on a course of any game projectors give results of separate competitions (or in the form of figures and letters, or by means of light-emitting diodes) and the general result of the whole series of games.

  The majority of devices which call video games or toys, are very insignificant, by the size remind microcalculators and easily find room in a pocket. Their screens representing a game field, consist of a glass plate with color drawing. Under it there are some tens light-emitting diodes with cross section less than 1 mm. Lighting up in a certain order, diodes make convincing impression of movement of subjects which they represent: balls, washers, players. On screens of the latest models some hundred points are shone: it strengthens effect of smoothness of movement. One more improvement — replaceable minicartridges, like recorder. Thanks to them, on the same device it is possible to play different games.

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